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CO2 as a Refrigerant — Criteria for Choosing Refrigerants

This is post number 2 of a series.

How R744 meets different conditions and criteria

Table 1: How R744 meets different conditions and criteria

Multiple factors need to be carefully considered when selecting any refrigerant, including its cooling capacity, safety, environmental impact, ease of use, cost, and availability of components and expertise. Table 1 summarizes these and other key criteria, and shows how well R744 meets them.

In general, the table shows that R744 offers a more superior cooling capacity than conventional refrigerants while meeting the demand for a natural refrigerant with low global warming impact, but presents challenges in both its application and handling.

In the next post, we’ll look at the properties of R744 as a naturally occurring substance.

Andre Patenaude
Director – CO2 Business Development, Emerson Climate Technologies

Visit our website for additional information on CO2 Solutions from Emerson. 
Excerpt from original document; Commercial CO2 Refrigeration Systems, Guide for Subcritical and Transcritical CO2 Applications.


To read all posts in our series on CO2 as a Refrigerant, click on the links below:

  1. Series Introduction
  2. Criteria for Choosing Refrigerants
  3. Properties of R744
  4. Introduction to Trancritical Operation
  5. Five Potential Hazards of R744
  6. Comparison of R744 with Other Refrigerants
  7. R744 Advantages / Disadvantages
  8. Introduction to R744 Systems
  9. Introduction to Retail Transcritical Systems
  10. Retail Booster Systems
  11. Introduction to Retail Cascade Systems
  12. Introduction to Secondary Systems
  13. Selecting the Best System

 

Commercial Refrigeration Industry Prepares for Next Generation of Refrigerants

217-P-E360_Compass_ART5

The commercial refrigeration industry is at a crossroads. In one direction, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to ban many commonly used refrigerants in favor of low-GWP alternatives. In the other direction, the Department of Energy (DOE) is mandating significant reductions in energy consumption for reach-ins, walk-ins and ice makers by 2017. If that wasn’t challenging enough, the two regulations at times conflict — with the DOE’s new standards based on the EPA’s delisted refrigerants.

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CO2 as a Refrigerant — Series Introduction

CO2 offers refrigeration with low global warming impact, but with new application and handling considerations

Weighing up natural refrigerant alternatives

This is post number 1 of a series.

Commercial refrigeration has been in the environmental spotlight for more than a decade, especially as leakage studies have revealed the true effects of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions. Considerable reductions in emissions are possible, but implementing them is having a major impact on the refrigeration industry. In response, many new refrigerant options and system architectures have appeared — both on paper and in practice — creating tricky choices for decision makers in commercial refrigeration.

The significant environmental advantages of R744 (CO2) have guaranteed its position as a leading option for future refrigeration systems. It has demonstrated favorable results in different system configurations over many years, particularly in Europe, Australia and Canada. Initially high investment costs are now on a downward trend, while innovations in component technology and application methods continue to reveal potential performance gains. These results have ensured that CO2 will be a long-term option in the foreseeable future.

This post is the first in a series that will introduce CO2 as a refrigerant. The blog series will summarize the properties of R744 and examine how well it meets traditional and emerging needs for refrigerants. The series will also covers some of the reasons why CO2 refrigeration systems differ from conventional systems, notably the design considerations created by the need for transcritical operation under certain conditions. Other topics concerning R744 will also be examined, including the general aspects of R744 systems; more detailed information about the design of R744 cascade, transcritical booster and secondary systems; and key points about their commissioning, operation and service.

In the next post I will discuss the basics and considerations in criteria for choosing refrigerants. Multiple factors need to be carefully considered and we’ll take a look at how well R744 meets key criteria.

Andre Patenaude
Director – CO2 Business Development, Emerson Climate Technologies

Visit our website for additional information on CO2 Solutions from Emerson. 
Excerpt from original document; Commercial CO2 Refrigeration Systems, Guide for Subcritical and Transcritical CO2 Applications.


To read all posts in our series on CO2 as a Refrigerant, click on the links below:

  1. Series Introduction
  2. Criteria for Choosing Refrigerants
  3. Properties of R744
  4. Introduction to Trancritical Operation
  5. Five Potential Hazards of R744
  6. Comparison of R744 with Other Refrigerants
  7. R744 Advantages / Disadvantages
  8. Introduction to R744 Systems
  9. Introduction to Retail Transcritical Systems
  10. Retail Booster Systems
  11. Introduction to Retail Cascade Systems
  12. Introduction to Secondary Systems
  13. Selecting the Best System

 

Copeland Scroll™ Outdoor Condensing Unit Keeps Diner Cool in the City

Cool in the City

When you’re running a vintage diner in New York City, you encounter certain challenges when it comes to operating needs and space. Frank Tsantsouris, owner of the Manhattan Diner, faced these challenges head on while trying to add refrigeration capacity for his walk-in freezers and coolers.

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