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[New Webinar]: Preparing for Emerging Refrigerants and CARB Compliance

Kurt Knapke | Vice President of Solutions Strategy, Cold Chain

Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

After years of speculation and uncertainty, the phasedown of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants has officially arrived in the U.S. Retailers in California were among the first to be impacted, as the California Air Resources Board’s (CARB) recent mandate went into effect as of Jan. 1, 2022. For stakeholders in the rest of the country, it’s no longer a question of “if” but “when” federal refrigerant mandates will impact them. In our next E360 Webinar, Katrina Krites, Emerson’s director of strategic marketing, and I will explore the roles that emerging refrigerants play in achieving both CARB and federal refrigerant compliance. The webinar will take place on Thursday, Aug. 4 at 2 p.m. EDT/11 a.m. PDT.

As the refrigerant transition sweeps across the country over the next several years, food retailers are busy determining which alternative refrigerants will form the bases of their future refrigeration strategies. Unlike the previous generation of commercial refrigeration equipment, there is no one-size-fits-all approach that will solve most retailers’ requirements. Corporate sustainability goals are also informing the evaluation process, as many companies seek to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by using lower-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and improving refrigeration system energy efficiencies.

Regardless of the motivation, these critical equipment and architecture decisions should not be taken lightly, as they can impact retail operations for 1–2 decades.

Among the most likely emerging refrigerant alternatives include proven natural refrigerants — such as CO2 (or R-744) and the hydrocarbon R-290 (aka propane) — as well as a new group of synthetic A2L options. Although these HFC successors offer the necessary GWP reductions, they introduce new performance characteristics and system architectures designed to address a wider variety of store formats and retailer requirements.

Phasing in the next generation of low-GWP refrigerant alternatives

Our next E360 Webinar is designed to help food retailers in California and throughout the U.S. align their refrigerant choices with their company’s long-term operational and sustainability goals. In addition to providing an overview of each emerging refrigerant’s operating characteristics and likely equipment options, Katrina and I will also explore strategies for achieving CARB compliance and preparing for soon-to-be implemented federal mandates. Attendees will learn about:

  • The continued growth of CO2 transcritical booster systems in North America
  • The expanding potential of R-290 due to charge limit increases per recent safety standards updates
  • How to prepare for the emergence of low-GWP A2L refrigerants, and how their lower flammability classification impacts system design and safety management
  • Strategies for achieving CARB compliance by evaluating total GHG emissions across a retailer’s entire fleet of stores in California
  • Aligning refrigerant choices with architecture recommendations in an ever-expanding range of food retail store formats

If you’re ready to phase out HFC refrigerants and start phasing in your next generation of lower-GWP alternatives, then register now. This informative and free webinar will take place on Thursday, Aug. 4 at 2 p.m. EDT/11 a.m. PDT.




Tips for Preparing for the Refrigerant Transition —HVAC School Podcast

Jennifer Butsch | Regulatory Affairs Director

Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

HVACR service technicians are at the front lines of the global refrigerant transition. As federal and state regulations take shape in the U.S., technicians and contracting companies have many questions about why this transition is underway and how to prepare for what’s coming. In a recent HVAC School podcast hosted by Brian Orr, Rajan Rajendran, Emerson’s global vice president of environmental sustainability and I answered some of the most pressing questions that technicians have about the changes in this dynamic refrigerant landscape.

As someone who has his finger on the pulse of the HVACR technician community, Brian knows the many challenges facing technicians as they help the industry transition to the next generation of lower-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. In our podcast discussion, he shared how many technicians are feeling the pressure of “bearing the burden” of execution and seeking guidance on how to prepare. Rajan and I were happy to have an opportunity to shed light on some of the key topics impacting technicians and our entire industry.

Keeping the refrigerant transition in proper context

Although many HVACR stakeholders are most concerned about which refrigerants will be used in the future, it’s important to think about the implications from a more holistic perspective. As Rajan explained, this was the spirit in which The Helix Innovation Center was conceived. Yes, the refrigerant GWP is an important factor, but it must also be considered among other variables, such as: system energy efficiency, consumer and/or retail trends, sustainability objectives and even the journey to achieving net-zero in commercial operations.

Similarly, Rajan discussed how the same holistic philosophy applies to equipment and/or system design, and how important it is to think beyond individual silos and to take a full ecosystem approach (i.e., focusing on the impacts of an entire system rather than simply evaluating individual component performance). Of course, the long-term implications to service technicians and end-users are chief among these considerations. Whether you’re considering the impacts of the refrigerant transition on an individual stakeholder, industry, equipment or system level, it’s crucial to consider the entire ecosystem and not just focus on one aspect.

Embracing the refrigerant continuum and staying informed

Another way to alleviate consternation about the refrigerant transition is to recognize that what’s occurring today is part of a continuing evolution and not necessarily a one-time event. As Rajan and I explained in the HVAC School podcast, this continuum has always been a factor in the ongoing evolution of HVACR technologies. When we look ahead to the changes coming to the commercial refrigeration, commercial AC or residential AC sectors, we’re anticipating a series of transitions over the next decade. The increasing global awareness of environmental sustainability will likely result in a more active period, leading to advances in refrigerant and energy-efficiency technologies.

So, what can technicians do now to prepare? Staying informed is the best way to gain a comfort level and a sense of preparedness. As Rajan stated, “Transitions are only a problem when you don’t know what’s coming.” Industry associations — such as the Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) — equipment manufacturers, and emerging resources like the HVAC School podcast are all stepping up efforts to keep technicians educated and informed. For our part, Emerson’s E360 stewardship program continues to offer a series of webinars, articles and resources; Emerson Educational Services offers programs on next-generation refrigerant applications and safety best practices.

What’s on the regulatory horizon?

Perhaps more than any other HVACR industry stakeholder, service technicians are keenly interested in what regulations are coming soon that could impact them next. Although this topic alone could be the source of a full series of podcasts, Rajan and I were happy to provide Brian with the high points:

  • The American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act has authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to phase down the production of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants. The next step is a 40 percent reduction in 2024, based on total GWP content.
  • The EPA will soon release draft regulations to refrigerant manufacturers regarding how quota will be allocated for the 2024 reduction.
  • Increasing demands for lower-GWP refrigerants will enable the emergence and wider adoption of A2L “lower flammability” refrigerants. Leak detection will become an even more integral part of A2L system safety.
  • Natural refrigerants like CO2 and propane will continue to play expanding roles.

Rajan and I discussed these regulatory topics in greater detail in our latest E360 Webinar, and we encourage you to view it for more information about what to expect in the regulatory pipeline. To hear our conversation with Brian Orr on the HVAC School podcast, please visit their website.




[Webinar Recap] The Latest in Refrigerant Rulemaking and Safety Standards

Jennifer Butsch | Regulatory Affairs Director

Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

As we near the year’s halfway point, the HVACR industry is watching closely as the next steps in the global phasedown of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants appear on the horizon. Emerging decarbonization targets are driving a reduction in the use of high-global warming potential (GWP) HFCs and the transition to next-generation, lower-GWP refrigerant alternatives. In a recent E360 Webinar, Rajan Rajendran, Emerson’s global vice president of sustainability, and I provided an update on the status of refrigerant regulations and their impacts on our industry. From federal- and state-led phasedown initiatives to evolving safety standards governing the use of A2L “lower flammability” refrigerants, we provided an overview of the current landscape and discussed strategies for achieving present and future HFC and GWP reductions.

AIM Act and the EPA (managing supply and demand)

Perhaps the most important driver in the U.S. HFC phasedown was the 2020 passing of the American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act and the authority it grants to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA is enacting a strategy that limits both the supply and demand of high-GWP HFCs per the phasedown schedule set forth by the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

The first step began this year with a 10 percent reduction in consumption and production of HFCs. The next step will be a 40 percent reduction, which will take effect in 2024 — a benchmark that represents the first major stepdown felt throughout U.S. HVACR sectors. Refrigerant production and import quotas are based on the GWP rating of a specific refrigerant, thereby supporting the increased production of lower-GWP refrigerants and a decrease in the availability of high-GWP HFCs. Hence, the law of supply and demand will drive up HFC prices and accelerate the transition to lower-GWP options. As we have seen, our industry is already experiencing rising HFC prices.

On the demand side, the EPA is proposing to drive down high-GWP HFC usage in new equipment by imposing new refrigerant GWP limits in commercial refrigeration and AC applications. This may lead to the restoration of its Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) rules 20 and 21 and/or the introduction of SNAP proposals aimed at approving new low-GWP options as they become available for use in emerging refrigeration technologies.

To help determine what those new GWP limits will be, the AIM Act sponsors asked for industry input via petitions, several of which the EPA has already taken into consideration. The EPA is currently working on drafts of proposed rulemaking, which we hope to see yet this year.

The EPA’s strategy for limiting HFC demand also applies to the servicing of existing equipment. This important aspect of the demand equation is primarily focused on leak reduction, verification and reporting (similar to the EPA’s Section 608 proposal, which guided previous generations of refrigerant phasedowns). The EPA is working to provide details related to HFC management, which may result in the restoration of Section 608 and/or an all-new HFC reclamation program.

HFC phasedown toolbox (direct vs. indirect emissions)

As Rajan explained in the webinar, the HFC phasedown ultimately is geared toward reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on their direct and indirect environmental impacts. Direct emissions refer to the potential for refrigerants to leak or be released into the atmosphere; indirect emissions refer to the energy consumption of associated refrigeration or AC equipment (which is estimated to be 10 times the impact of direct emissions).

Per estimates from the Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), 86 percent of total refrigerant use stems from refrigeration, AC and heat pump equipment. Of that, only 40 percent can be attributed to filling up new equipment, while 60 percent is used for topping off systems that have had direct refrigerant leaks.

Rajan shared that preparing for the next step change in HFC reductions in 2024 will require our industry to leverage key strategies in the HFC phasedown toolbox, such as refrigerant management and equipment design best practices. In existing systems, this will mean an increased focus on maintenance to reduce both direct leaks and the indirect environmental impacts of poor system performance and energy efficiency. Recommendations for existing systems include:

  • Detecting, reducing, and eliminating refrigerant leaks
  • Retrofitting to a lower-GWP refrigerant in the same class (A1), with the best-case scenario of selecting equipment that is also A2L-ready
  • Recovering and reclaiming refrigerant for use in service (never vent refrigerant or release into the atmosphere)

For new equipment, Rajan recommended using the lowest possible GWP alternative and adopting emerging refrigeration system technologies that leverage lower refrigerant charges. As has been the case with other lower-charge options — such as self-contained, R-290 systems — the end goal is to achieve maximum system capacity using a minimum amount of refrigerant charge.

For both new and existing equipment, it’s critical to always maintain all components, equipment, and systems in accordance with optimal design conditions, including during installation, commissioning and normal operation. Doing so will improve system energy efficiency and performance while minimizing indirect impacts. By implementing these strategies on new and existing equipment, we believe our industry can achieve HFC reductions below the 2024 phasedown — as well as the 70 percent reduction scheduled for 2029.

A2L emergence, safety standards and state-led initiatives

Achieving the needed GWP reductions will require the use of emerging A2L refrigerants with a “lower flammability” rating. These alternatives — also likely to be among those soon to be approved by the EPA — have been the subject of rapidly evolving safety standards and building codes designed to enable their safe use in commercial refrigeration. From a refrigerant landscape point of view, Rajan explained which A2L refrigerants are being developed and how they compare to their HFC predecessors in terms of GWP and capacity ratings.

I also provided an overview of the regulatory activities taking place within states in the U.S., including the latest California Air Resources Board (CARB) proposals, decarbonization actions in New York and Washington as well as those being proposed by the U.S. Climate Alliance. Many of these state-led activities represent regulatory approaches that are not only more aggressive than the AIM Act’s proposals, but they would also lead to a potentially more complex patchwork of regulatory compliance from state to state — a factor that some governors have recognized as inferior to the adoption of a standardized federal approach.

To learn more about making a successful HFC phasedown, emerging A2L alternatives and the refrigerant rulemaking landscape, please view this webinar.



Add Variable-speed Compression to the Refrigeration Technology Toolbox

Joe Summers | Senior Product Manager – Scrolls & Drives
Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

Among the available options to improve refrigeration efficiency and performance, variable-speed compression technology has historically been an underutilized asset in the system design toolbox. Instead of exploring its many benefits, many supermarket and restaurant retailers continue to hold on to persistent misperceptions about high costs and implementation complexities. Today, shifting market dynamics, technological advances and sustainability concerns are reshaping the conversation. In a recent article for Consulting-Specifying Engineer, I explored the growing business case for variable-speed compression technology across an expanding spectrum of commercial refrigeration applications.

What’s causing the industry to re-examine the potential of variable-speed compression technology? Sustainability initiatives, refrigerant regulations and energy-efficiency mandates are driving food retailers toward more efficient refrigeration equipment. Many are evaluating equipment that will help them to lower their total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) by:

  • Delivering high energy efficiencies and/or achieving ENERGY STAR® certification
  • Leveraging lower-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

At the same time, food retailers are responding to market trends by adopting smaller-format stores that favor distributed refrigeration strategies over traditional centralized architectures. As a result, self-contained, reach-in refrigerators and freezers, display cases and walk-in coolers — that don’t need to be connected to a centralized rack system — are becoming more commonplace while offering increased merchandizing flexibility.

Due to a steady decline in the applied costs of power electronics, manufacturers of variable frequency drives (VFDs) have made tremendous strides in improving their application potential and ease of use. All told, the cost/benefit analysis of variable-speed compression technologies has improved significantly, bringing them into parity with traditional refrigeration options while delivering a variety of end-user benefits, including:

  • Improved energy efficiency via better load matching, less cycling on and off, soft start-ups and faster pull-downs
  • Increased precision and accuracy of temperature and humidity control
  • Enhanced equipment reliability via proactive motor failure prevention, improved diagnostics, reduced start/stops and power fluctuation management
  • Accelerated return on investment (ROI) via energy and equipment savings
  • Adaptable to multiple applications
  • Decreased, more controllable noise levels
  • Opportunities to become even more affordable via the availability of state and utility incentives that can greatly reduce upfront costs

How Emerson is supporting OEMs

For original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of these self-contained systems, variable-speed compression represents one of the few remaining options capable of helping them to improve energy efficiencies or meet market demands for environmentally friendly refrigeration equipment.

Emerson’s variable-speed compression technology consists of a variable-speed compressor — typically a low-profile horizontal or vertical scroll — paired with a VFD. Rather than using a traditional induction motor, compressors are equipped with brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors to deliver:

  • Improved efficiency, even at low speeds
  • Increased power density to allow for smaller compressors
  • 15 to 30% overall efficiency improvements while reducing size and cost

Pairing a low-profile scroll compressor with a VFD enables it to modulate across a much broader capacity range. Rather than cycling on and off, compressors can precisely match capacity in response to changing refrigeration loads. This paired VFD and compressor approach delivers twice the speed and capacity in a much smaller scroll compressor (e.g., 7,000 revolutions per minute [RPM] versus 3,500 RPM) while delivering:

  • Improved equipment reliability
  • Continuous and more precise temperature and humidity control
  • Low starting torque to eliminate startup current spikes

Copeland™ variable-speed compressor lineup

Copeland horizontal and vertical scroll compressors are seamlessly integrated with Copeland EVM drives to create best-in-class, variable-speed compression solutions for commercial refrigeration.

Variable-speed horizontal scroll compressors

Horizontal scrolls are well-suited for lower-profile, medium-temperature (MT) applications such as stand-alone display cases and self-contained packaged systems.

  • ½ to 4 HP capacity modulation range
  • Approved for use with R-290 (GWP = 3) and lower-GWP A1 refrigerants (R-448A, R-449A)
  • Height is less than 10 inches, providing maximum design flexibility

Per the recent charge increases approved by the UL 60335-2-89 safety standard, Emerson is currently qualifying our horizontal scroll compressors for R-290 charges up to 500g. We are also working to make them A2L-ready when A2Ls are approved for use in commercial refrigeration.

Variable-speed vertical scroll compressors

Traditional vertical scrolls have an expanded capacity range that can cover a wide spectrum of MT and low-temperature (LT) reach-in and walk-in equipment.

  • ¼ to 7 HP capacity modulation range
  • Approved for use with R-448A and R-449A; currently qualifying A2Ls for future use
  • Vapor-injection option available for LT applications

Variable-speed fractional hermetic compressors

Fractional Copeland hermetic compressors are ideal for smaller, MT and LT reach-in units, display cases and walk-ins. Their small profile helps to maximize available merchandizing space.

  • ⅛ to ⅞ HP capacity modulation range
  • Integrated VFD with smart controller
  • Approved for use with R-290

Today, Emerson continues to expand its variable-speed compression solutions to provide end-users and OEMs with an ideal combination of versatility, high performance, reliability and efficiency. To learn more, please explore our variable-speed compression solutions.



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