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Posts from the ‘Regulations’ Category

Refrigerant Regulations: 2018 Recap and 2019 Impacts

RajanRajendran2 Rajan Rajendran | V.P., System Innovation Center and Sustainability

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

The year 2018 brought many changes to refrigerant regulations, with additional activity expected in 2019 and beyond. This blog highlights some of the key developments, which were presented in a recent E360 article. Read the full article here.

 

The regulation of refrigerants continues to be a source of great uncertainty in the commercial refrigeration industry. As global, national and state regulations have targeted the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in recent years, some in the industry have begun the transition toward alternative refrigerants with lower global warming potential (GWP). But these environmentally friendly options raise additional questions about performance and safety.

All in all, it’s a complex regulatory mix that got even more complicated in 2018. But we’re here to recap recent events and place them into a larger context.

The status of EPA SNAP Rule 20

In 2017, the U.S. District Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruled to vacate the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Significant New Alternative Policy (SNAP) Rule 20. The court ruled that the EPA did not have authority to phase down HFCs under the Clean Air Act (CAA) — which was originally intended to eliminate ozone-depleting substances (ODS) — and thus could no longer enforce its 2015 GWP-based mandates.

In the absence of Rule 20, the commercial refrigeration industry has many questions about what the path toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future for refrigerants will look like. Industry calls to overturn the District of Columbia Court of Appeal’s decision were declined by the Supreme Court, which stated it would not hear the HFC case1. Currently, the EPA is drafting new regulations that will clarify its plans to move forward with SNAP. We anticipate details on their position early this year.

EPA rescinds other HFC-related regulations

The EPA has also indicated that it will no longer enforce refrigerant delistings and has proposed to roll back other HFC-related regulations2. In particular, the EPA has proposed excluding HFCs from the leak repair and maintenance requirements for stationary refrigeration equipment, otherwise known as Section 608 of the CAA.

California adopts Rule 20 as the basis for its initiatives

Regulatory uncertainty at the federal level is not preventing states from adopting their own refrigerant regulations and programs. California Senate Bill 1383, aka the Super Pollutant Reduction Act, was passed in 2016 and requires that Californians reduce F-gas emissions (including HFCs) by 40 percent by 20303. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has been tasked with meeting these reductions.

Since 2016, CARB had been using EPA SNAP Rules 20 and 21 as the bases of its HFC phase-down initiatives. Even after SNAP Rule 20 was vacated, CARB moved to adopt compliance dates that were already implemented or upcoming. The passing of California Senate Bill 1013 — aka the California Cooling Act — in Sept. 20184 mandates the full adoption of SNAP Rules 20 and 21 as they read on Jan. 3, 2017. The law is currently in effect and does not require additional CARB rulemaking to uphold compliance dates.

CARB is also proposing an aggressive second phase of rulemaking that would further impact commercial refrigeration and AC applications. CARB has held public workshops and invited industry stakeholders to comment on the details of this proposal.

Meanwhile, many other states have announced their plans to follow California’s lead on HFC phase-downs. The U.S. Climate Alliance, formed in 2017 out of a coalition of 16 states and Puerto Rico, is committed to reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), including HFCs. Among these alliance states, New York, Maryland, Connecticut and Delaware have announced plans to follow California’s lead on HFC phase-downs.

Refrigerant safety standards and codes under review

Many of the low-GWP, hyrdrofluoroolefin (HFO) refrigerants are classified as A2L, or mildly flammable. R-290 (propane) is also becoming a natural refrigerant option for many low-charge, self-contained applications. Currently, national and global governing agencies are evaluating the standards that establish allowable charge limits and the safe use of these A2L and A3 refrigerants.

Internationally, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has proposed increasing charge limits for refrigeration systems in IEC60335-2-89 as follows:

  • A2Ls — from 150g to 1.2kg
  • A3s — 500g for factory-sealed systems, and will remain at 150g for split systems

These proposals are still under review and will likely be published sometime in 2019.

Kigali Amendment took effect on Jan. 1

The regulatory uncertainty in the U.S. can sometimes obscure international efforts underway to phase down HFCs. The Montreal Protocol has led the way on this effort for nearly a decade5. In 2016, 197 countries met in Kigali, Rwanda, and agreed on a global HFC phase-down proposal. Known as the Kigali Amendment, this treaty has been ratified by 53 countries (including the E.U.) and took effect on Jan. 1 for participating countries. The U.S. is still considering ratification.

As we move into 2019, there are many moving pieces on the regulatory chess board, but also some encouraging signs of progress. We will be providing the very latest regulatory updates in our next E360 Webinar. Register now to stay informed.

  1. https://www.achrnews.com/articles/140040-supreme-court-declines-to-hear-hfc-case
  2. https://www.epa.gov/section608/revised-section-608-refrigerant-management-regulations
  3. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160SB1383
  4. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201720180SB1013
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Protocol#Hydrochlorofluorocarbons_(HCFCs)_Phase-out_Management_Plan_(HPMP)

Top 10 Emerson YouTube Videos for 2018: Lights, Camera, Expertise!

AndrePatenaude_Blog_Image Andre Patenaude | Director, Food Retail Marketing & Growth Strategy, Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

At Emerson, seeing is explaining. When you need to keep pace with new technologies, regulations and ideas in fast-moving industries, you want to hear from the experts. That’s why we regularly call upon industry leaders to join us in discussions about the future of our commercial refrigeration industry. You can find many of these discussions in videos captured from informative E360 Webinars and Forums. What follows is a summary of our top 10 most-viewed videos of 2018.

  1. E360 Webinar 13: Seven Keys to Servicing CO2 Systems

CO2-based refrigeration systems with R-744 are new to a lot of service technicians, which drew a large audience to this webinar about dealing effectively with the refrigerant’s unique properties. Starting with an overview of the systems themselves, the presentation walked step-by-step through handling critical and triple points, high and standstill pressures, cylinder storage, charging and system maintenance best practices.

  1. E360 Forum: Dallas | Food Industry Forecast: Key Trends Through 2020

After a long period of stable growth, the restaurant, foodservice and food retail industries face a set of new and disruptive industry trends, with new business structures, different operating environments and business practices that are rapidly driving change. This E360 Forum discussed these big trends: new consumer expectations, the demand for localized food, farm-to-fork transparency, the role of technology and Big Data, and deconsolidation into specialized niches.

  1. E360 Forum: Raleigh | Cold Chain Evolution

The pressure to create an unbreakable global cold chain has become critical for the food industry. Every year, 33 percent of all food spoils in transit — a loss of $1 trillion. Food safety is critical to a brand’s reputation, trust and profits. Global transport and international regulations have extended the cold chain to air, land and water. This E360 Forum discussed the cold chains of yesterday and today, and described how the rapid evolution to a digitally connected cold chain provides the potential for end-to-end optimization.

  1. E360 Webinar 6: Best Practices for Evaluating Compressor System Performance

Whether you’re a commercial refrigeration OEM selecting a compressor for a new system or a food retailer choosing a new chiller, there are a lot of compressor options from which to choose, often with very different performance attributes to consider. This popular webinar discussed factors such as temperature mid-points and dew points, compressor capacities, energy-efficiency ratios and other issues crucial to selecting the right compressor with the lowest cost of ownership.

  1. E360 Webinar 14: EPA’s Final Refrigerant Ruling: Its Impact on Your Business

The EPA’s 2015 final rule on the delisting of HFC refrigerants in commercial refrigeration and AC applications sent shockwaves throughout our industries. This webinar detailed which refrigerants were selected for phase-down and when, discussed how the ruling impacted various refrigeration applications, and covered viable refrigerant alternatives for OEMs, operators, and refrigerant manufacturers and contractors. For the latest rulemaking on refrigerants, please view this regulatory update session from our most recent E360 Forum.

  1. E360 Conference 2017 | Trends in Supermarket Refrigeration Architectures

If they haven’t already, the architecture, systems and refrigerants in your supermarket are going to change — significantly. Driving the change? The drumbeat of international, federal and state regulations already arriving. This high-level conference covered a wide range of architectures, equipment and refrigerant options, their complexity, costs and maintenance requirements, and four key operational considerations: energy, economics, the environment and equipment.

 

  1. E360 Forum: Anaheim | Trends in Refrigerant System Architecture & CO2

As ambient temperatures go up, condenser and refrigerator compression efficiency go down. With new refrigerants, including natural refrigerants such as CO2, high temperatures — and the refrigerants’ critical points — become major considerations. In this technical presentation, centering on CO2 refrigerant as an example, we discussed a range of system architecture options and new equipment and components that help CO2 refrigeration tackle high ambient temperatures while maintaining performance.

  1. E360 Webinar 16: Innovation in Refrigeration

This webinar’s short title encompasses the enormous problems facing our industry today, including: dynamic regulations, the need for an unbreakable global cold chain, the call for access to all data, and the needs of a rapidly changing industry. In this webinar, we learned that the process of innovation itself has to evolve to involve every link in the refrigerated equipment value chain. You’ll see these new approaches modeled at The Helix Innovation Center at the University of Dayton in Ohio, where we’re actively pursuing innovations in refrigeration technology through an inclusive, collaborative approach.

  1. E360 Conference 2017 | The Human Equation of Facility Management

This is a story about shortages. Facility managers have a shortage of resources across the board and sometimes have to outsource their facility services. These services face a shortage of technicians — and a big gap in expertise between experienced technicians and the new generation. Under these circumstances, how do you manage costs and ensure efficient responses to facility problems? This conference presented an answer: call on technology to become more intelligent and provide technicians the information they need to do more with less.

  1. E360 Forum: Anaheim | Converting Waste Into Renewable Energy

Ever give a thought to the garbage disposal in your kitchen sink? This presentation showed that it’s no longer a simple appliance, but an environmentally responsible tool that keeps food waste out of landfills, keeps methane out of the air, and creates a new, clean energy source — right from the food scraps going down your sink. InSinkErator, an Emerson company, works to transform water treatment plants into energy powerhouses by creating biosolids to produce energy and fertilizers without waste.

 

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