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Why Contractors Need to Prepare Now for the Coming CO2 Refrigerant Revolution

DonGillis Don Gillis | Technical Training Specialist

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

CO2 is an emerging natural refrigerant alternative, but it poses a sharp learning curve for technicians in the U.S. I recently authored an article in RSES Journal that explains why contractors will need to start enhancing their knowledge and adapting their skillsets now to prepare for future servicing needs. You can read the full article, “Fundamentals of CO2 Refrigeration,” here.

Why Contractors Need to Prepare Now for the Coming CO2 Refrigerant Revolution

Why Contractors Need to Prepare Now for the Coming CO2 Refrigerant Revolution

As the drive to replace hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants with lower-GWP (global warming potential) alternatives heats up, CO2 (or refrigerant R-744) is a proven natural option that is experiencing wider adoption in the U.S. — particularly in large centralized systems.

Natural refrigerants — so named because they occur naturally in the environment — also include both propane and ammonia. But for larger-format supermarket operators seeking an all-natural, environmentally friendly option, CO2 checks all the boxes. It’s nonflammable and nontoxic. It presents no threat to the ozone layer. And it meets every current and known future regulatory requirement. In addition, whereas R-404A has a GWP of 3,922, CO2 has a GWP of 1.

While CO2 refrigeration architectures have been successfully deployed in European commercial and industrial settings for nearly two decades, they are a relative newcomer to the U.S. That’s set to change as more operators face regulatory mandates or have stated sustainability objectives.

This will pose a sharp learning curve for many refrigeration contractors and service technicians, especially those who aren’t familiar with the peculiarities of CO2, or the transcritical CO2 booster architecture they’re most likely to encounter soon.

Understanding CO2’s unique properties

When servicing transcritical CO2 booster systems, technicians will need to account for factors that they have never needed to consider with HFC systems. CO2 has a much lower temperature at atmospheric pressure than HFCs. It also has a higher saturation point, as well as higher operating and standstill pressures. Understanding how these characteristics impact system operation servicing requirements and system performance is essential:

  • Low critical point. CO2’s very low critical point (at 1,056 psig or 87.8 °F) determines its modes of operation; the system will operate in subcritical mode at low ambient temperatures and transcritical mode at higher ambient temperatures.
  • High triple point. At 61 psig, CO2’s triple point — where the refrigerant’s solid, liquid and vapor phases coexist — is very high. If system pressures reach the triple point, the refrigerant will turn to dry ice, which affects system performance and presents a potential safety hazard.
  • Rapid pressure rise. During power outages, CO2 pressures can rise quickly. Pressure-relief valves will release the refrigerant charge when it exceeds acceptable pressures, but this can increase the risk of product loss. To prevent system evacuation, CO2 systems often are designed with an auxiliary cooling system.
  • Vapor to liquid charging. CO2 systems typically use both liquid and vapor to charge, requiring careful coordination to prevent the formation of dry ice.

Transcritical CO2 systems are specifically designed to manage its high pressures and maximize its full potential. Because this system design represents a completely different approach than typical HFC systems, specialized training is required to service these systems and understand their supporting technologies, which typically include high-pressure controllers, electronic expansion valves, pres­sure transducers and temperature sensors.

Finding the right educational resources

Contractors and technicians who want to add CO2 servicing to their qualifications would do well to start educating themselves now. All signs indicate that its adoption in the U.S. will accelerate in the near future. Given CO2’s peculiarities and unique system design strategies, it is imperative that technicians familiarize themselves with the refrigerant and the operation of a CO2 system.

At Emerson, we are leading the industry in CO2 refrigeration system innovation. But we don’t just offer a full suite of CO2 refrigeration system components. We also are dedicated to helping contracting businesses ensure their service technicians understand how to safely install, commission and service these systems. Our Educational Services team offers a comprehensive CO2 training curriculum for contractors seeking to learn more about working with this emerging refrigerant alternative.

 

Refrigerant Regulations Update and Industry Trends

Jennifer_Butsch Jennifer Butsch | Regulatory Affairs Manager

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

In the United States, the regulations governing the use of refrigerants in commercial refrigeration and AC applications remain in a state of flux. Our next E360 Webinar will take place on Tuesday, March 31 at 2 p.m. EDT/11 a.m. PDT and provide an update on the latest regulatory developments at the state and federal levels.

Refrigerant Regulations Update and Industry TrendsThe unpredictable nature of environmental regulations in the U.S. continues to be a source of great uncertainty in today’s commercial refrigeration and AC industries. While many countries around the world are following international guidelines set forth by the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and the Paris Agreement, the U.S. has rolled back its former federal refrigerant regulations and has yet to participate in these multi-national climate measures.

However, at the state level domestically, things are evolving quickly. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is moving forward with its stated 2030 deadline of reducing hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions by 40 percent from the state’s 2013 baseline levels. While CARB is currently drafting specific proposals on how to achieve this goal, it’s clear that supermarkets and cold storage operators will soon need to accelerate their transition to new refrigerant alternatives that offer much lower global warming potential (GWP).

California is forging a path to long-term environmental sustainability that many other states are following. Currently, 25 states and provinces have joined the U.S. Climate Alliance — which represents 55 percent of the national population — and committed their leadership on climate change initiatives, including the reduction of HFCs. But with 25 governing bodies working toward similar goals, we’re already seeing the possibility of divergent regulatory approaches that would make it increasingly difficult for our industry to manage.

Meanwhile, both the House of Representatives and the Senate have introduced new bills that would give the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) authority to regulate HFCs. With this dynamic mix of activities and new developments happening almost every week, it’s becoming more important than ever to stay informed. Our next E360 Webinar is dedicated to making sense of this turbulent regulatory climate and will provide you with guidance on how to prepare for the future.

This timely and informative E360 Webinar will take place on Tuesday, March 31 at 2 p.m. EDT/11 a.m. PDT. It will be hosted by Emerson’s leading experts on refrigerant regulations: Rajan Rajendran, vice president, systems innovation center and sustainability; and Jennifer Butsch, manager, regulatory affairs. Attendees will learn:

  • How CARB is building upon its Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) ruling foundation with newly proposed HFC refrigerant phase-down efforts
  • How some U.S. Climate Alliance states are adopting the EPA’s SNAP Rules 20 and 21 on their own individual timelines
  • Status of the standards governing charge limits and safe use of A2L and A3 refrigerants, including the potential impacts on building codes
  • Availability of new low-GWP refrigerants
  • Update on the new federal HFC regulations introduced by the Senate and the House
  • New and emerging industry trends to watch closely

Register now for this informative and free webinar.

 

Montreal Protocol Members Declare Commitment to Reduce Food Loss and Waste

RajanRajendran2 Rajan Rajendran | V.P., System Innovation Center and Sustainability

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

In November, the 31st Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol convened in Rome to discuss progress in their ongoing efforts to protect the Earth against ozone depletion and global warming. Among the new topics introduced by member nations was the need to implement sustainable and efficient solutions in the refrigeration and air-conditioning sector — not only to meet future cooling demand but also to include cold chain initiatives for food preservation.

Montreal Protocol Members Declare Commitment to Reduce Food Loss and Waste

For more than three decades, the Montreal Protocol has introduced measures to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of cooling technologies — first with a mandate to phase out ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and most recently with the Kigali Amendment, which targets a phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). As these efforts have experienced wide adoption by its global member nations, the Montreal Protocol’s stakeholders are now vowing to take a closer look at additional cooling-related climate issues, such as reducing food waste and creating a more sustainable cold chain.

At the November meeting, key stakeholders discussed the Montreal Protocol’s global responsibilities to continue its leadership in climate matters and extend its efforts into reducing global food loss and waste. Participants stressed the urgency for countries to work together to find new solutions to address world hunger — noting that it would be possible to feed the entire world with current food production levels if waste was eliminated.

Participants also discussed other far-reaching benefits of these efforts toward creating more sustainable cold chains, such as: price stabilization; improved food security; enhanced profitability; more secure livelihoods; social and economic development gains; fair and just sustainability transitions; achieving sustainable development goals; continuing research, development and innovation; synergistic action; and restoration of degraded lands.

Introducing the Rome Declaration

At the November Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, members were invited to support the Rome Declaration on the Contribution of the Montreal Protocol to Food Loss Reduction through Sustainable Cold Chain Management initiative. Currently, the Rome Declaration has been signed by ministers of 76 countries and is open for additional member signatures until the start of the next Meeting of the Parties, to be held next November.

The Rome Declaration calls for both national action and international cooperation to promote sustainable cold chain development, including the use of environmentally friendly refrigeration to reduce food loss. It states that achieving its objectives will require cooperation among governments, the Protocol’s institutions, United Nations (UN) specialized agencies, existing private and public initiatives, and all relevant stakeholders to exchange knowledge and promote innovation.

Among the Rome Declaration’s key objectives is to provide access to energy-efficient, sustainable refrigeration technologies in developing nations — particularly those that follow the Montreal Protocol’s guidance on refrigerants — thereby helping them contribute to the reduction of food loss and waste.

Aligning with Emerson’s cold chain capabilities

We won’t know for some time whether the Rome Declaration will become an internationally agreed upon mandate. But like the previous efforts of the Montreal Protocol to phase down harmful substances used in cooling devices, the Rome Declaration is an opportunity to leverage Emerson’s efforts in providing sustainable and energy-efficient solutions — not only in the refrigeration and air-conditioning sectors, but throughout the global cold chain.

From compressors and refrigeration system technologies to temperature monitoring and tracking devices to connected electronic controllers and facility management systems, we’re committed to helping cold chain stakeholders achieve temperature certainty and maximize energy efficiencies in the most environmentally responsible means possible.

 

Three Ways Restaurant Operators Can Realize the Full Potential of Connected Controls

SteveWeiss_2 Steve Weiss | Vice President, Business Development

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

Food safety and quality are critical to foodservice operations, which is why the business case for kitchen connectivity tends to prioritize both. But operators who limit their use case to these factors are overlooking the potential advantages connected controls offer to their bottom line. As I explained in a recent E360 Outlook article, standard (parametric) and embedded (custom) controls with internet of things (IoT) capabilities can also serve as a catalyst for improved operational efficiencies.

Three Ways Restaurant Operators Can Realize the Full Potential of Connected Controls

The integration of standard and embedded controls is common on both the hot and cold sides of kitchen operations in order to regulate temperature and optimize performance. So it’s not a major leap to expand the application of IoT technology to reduce energy, labor and maintenance costs. Here are three ways operators can derive greater cost savings from their connected controls.

1: Reduce energy costs on the cold side

On the cold side, standard controls are typically used in a “set it and forget it” fashion. Yet advances in refrigeration control technology provide for much greater functionalities. Operators can gain real-time insights into system performance and receive alerts when temperature deviations or equipment malfunctions occur. As a result, they can address issues immediately — before they become a drag on system performance, drive up utility bills, and put food quality at risk.

Consider the repercussions of leaving a walk-in door open. This simple act can cause a chain reaction that, at best, reduces the system’s efficiency but at worst, puts the entire inventory at risk. Connected controls can issue an alert when this occurs, allowing an operator to immediately address the oversight.

2: Automate manual processes on the hot side

Embedded controls can also be connected to transform the hot side of a kitchen, such as automating kitchen preparation and implementing important checks on food safety for regulatory compliance. In connected kitchens, these controls can also collect and log Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) data, minimizing manual steps and improving documentation accuracy.

Large foodservice operators can also use their connected controls to digitally push menu changes from corporate headquarters to stores across their networks. By reducing a complex, labor-intensive process to a few simple steps, these stores can cut labor costs while guaranteeing that their menus and recipes are updated quickly and consistently.

3: Build a more effective maintenance program

Connected kitchens can also provide operators with centralized control of their entire store network — from kitchen equipment to HVAC and lighting systems. With the capabilities afforded by IoT, cloud storage and analytics software, operators can monitor system performance from their hand-held devices. And just as important, they can leverage the insights available at their fingertips to create proactive or condition-based maintenance programs. In this scenario, issues can be detected, anticipated and resolved before they disrupt operations or lead to costly truck rolls.

Getting the most out of your controls

Most refrigeration equipment manufactured in the past seven years is connectable. So for operators, the question shouldn’t be “Can we do this?” but rather, “What do we want to accomplish?” By shifting the conversation to desired outcomes, operators will be better able to make the right strategic investments to gain their desired return.

The key for operators is understanding that there is no “one size fits all” solution for attaining a connected kitchen. The IoT infrastructure should be built to deliver on your desired outcomes, rather than forcing your business objectives to conform to the system architecture. At Emerson, we’re helping restaurant operators of all sizes gain the full potential of connected controls so they can better tackle their most pressing market challenges. Learn how you can get connected by contacting an Emerson representative today.

Tracking Food Safety Data During the Cold Chain Journey

MattToone_2 Matt Toone | Vice President, Sales & Solutions – Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

Whether you’re a convenience store (c-store) operator, quick-service restaurant (QSR), or a fast casual or fine dining establishment, ensuring food quality and safety is imperative to your success. In this blog, the third of a three-part series based on a recent E360 article, Minimizing Food Safety Risks From Farm to Fork, I explore how advanced technologies can protect food safety at every step in the cold chain.

Tracking Food Safety Data During the Cold Chain Journey

Food safety and quality are the cornerstones to any successful foodservice operation. The ability for operators to deliver on both, however, hinges in large part on an interdependent supply chain of multiple, diverse stakeholders. Yet many operators are unaware of the efforts required to maintain food safety and quality throughout this cold chain.

Until now.

The rise of internet of things (IoT) technologies is providing unprecedented opportunities to monitor, control and track the many factors that influence quality during food’s long journey from farms to customers. For foodservice operators, this means greater control over ensuring that food is safe on receipt. Exercising this power starts with understanding the cold chain and how data is collected.

The cold chain journey

As foodservice operators well know, the pressure to protect food safety is felt most acutely where customers buy or consume food. But every stakeholder in the cold chain is responsible for maintaining food quality and freshness:

  • Harvesting and processing: The cold chain journey begins at the moment of harvest, where everything from the time of day to environmental conditions affect quality. Processors use a variety of strategies, including temperature controls, to slow or halt the decay process. The pipeline of data monitoring also begins at this stage, with pulp temperature probes and temperature loggers and trackers.
  • Transportation: Whether food is shipped by land, sea or air, reputable transport companies will apply a variety of best practices and technologies to protect its quality. Independent temperature monitoring, logging and tracking devices that provide real-time communications are essential at this stage. These systems enable remote monitoring and issue alert notifications when deviations in temperatures, humidity, modified atmosphere settings and vibration occur.
  • Cold storage: Cold storage distribution centers are another vital link in the cold chain. Here, data is collected at several points to ensure that food meets documented food safety standards. Many of these facilities employ different temperature zones and use both industrial and commercial refrigeration technologies. Devices that can work across disparate systems to monitor, record and maintain proper temperatures are critical to providing temperature certainty.
  • Restaurants: From the moment they accept a shipment, operators take ownership of food safety. For this reason, they should meticulously inspect all data accrued during the product’s journey to ensure it was kept at optimal conditions. After receipt, advanced facility and refrigeration controls can help operators maintain proper temperatures and comply with food safety regulations.

Solutions to protect food safety at every step

The cold chain can involve multiple hand-offs as food makes a days- or weeks-long journey to its final destination. That’s why end-to-end solutions for cold chain technologies are so essential to protecting food safety. An unbroken chain of data, paired with the streamlining capabilities of IoT technologies, puts greater oversight of food quality into the hands of operators and their suppliers.

At Emerson, we have both the refrigeration expertise and targeted solutions for nearly every point along the food supply chain. Our growing portfolio of connected, communicating devices and enterprise management software provides the solutions and resources our customers need to achieve cold chain temperature certainty and verification throughout food’s journey.

From compression and refrigeration system technologies, to case controls and facility management devices, to temperature loggers, trackers and probing devices, to software and services — we’re a leading single-source partner dedicated to helping our customers ensure full cold chain integrity.

So if you’re ready to take your operation to the next level with advanced controls and technologies, contact Emerson today.

 

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