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Emerson to Participate in Online ATMOsphere America 2020

Andre Patenaude | Director – Solutions Integration,

Emerson’s Cold Chain Business

As an industry steward and leader in the development of environmentally friendly refrigeration technologies, Emerson is pleased to announce our participation and Silver sponsorship at the ATMOsphere America 2020 conference, which will take place October 20 through October 22. Due to the COVID-19 health crisis, this year’s event will utilize an online, virtual format to make the business case for natural refrigerants.

Per usual, the annual event will feature a packed agenda of keynote presentations, technology case studies, HVACR market trends and policy updates to provide a complete picture of the latest developments and future trends related to the use of natural refrigerants. In addition, ATMOsphere America 2020 will be expanding its scope to cover opportunities for natural refrigerant technologies in Central and South America. As a result, the agenda will include sessions that discuss both international- and national-level policy developments, highlight notable projects, and bring together stakeholders to talk about their experiences.

Policy and Standards panel discussion

Among the industry experts speaking at the event are Emerson’s Rajan Rajendran, V.P., system innovation center and sustainability; and Jennifer Butsch, regulatory affairs manager. Rajan and Jennifer will be participating in the Policy and Standards panel discussion on Wednesday, October 21 at 11:10 a.m. EDT. This distinguished panel will also include Tony Lundell, senior director of standards and safety with the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR), Christina Starr, senior policy analyst with the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), and Glenn Gallagher, air pollution specialist with the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

This panel discussion will explore the current status of federal hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) regulations in the U.S. and the potential impact of presidential administration changes upon future rulemaking. Rajan and Jennifer will give a short presentation and then take questions from the online audience.

Latin America CO2 transcritical case study and training panel discussion

On the final day of the conference (October 22), Emerson’s Carlos Obella, V.P., engineering services and product development for Latin America, will present a case study in a session titled, Casos de Estudio: Refrigeracion Comercial e Industrial at 3:20 p.m. EDT. The presentation will demonstrate how they have applied an enhanced control algorithm to ensure the optimized system management of CO2 transcritical systems with liquid and vapor ejectors. The case study will highlight an installation located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which utilized dynamic superheat management and the implementation of overfeed evaporators to considerably increase the overall coefficient of performance (COP) when compared to other direct expansion (DX) solutions. Other system features to be discussed include: heat reclaim regulation, dynamic suction setpoint and remote monitoring via a web-based application. In addition, Emerson’s Alonso Amor, technical manager for Mexico, will present on the learning centers in both Brazil and Mexico in a session titled, Panel de Discusion: Capacitacion at 12:20 p.m. EDT.

 

ATMOsphere America 2020 promises to be extremely informative for those interested in learning more about natural refrigerant technologies and the policies that impact their use. To learn more about the conference and view a detailed session agenda, please visit their website. To attend any of the sessions, please register here.

Pandemic Reveals Importance of Cold Chain Integrity

Andre Patenaude | Director – Solutions Integration, Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

Even the most resilient food supply chains are being challenged in ways never imagined before the coronavirus pandemic. At the same time, consumers, retailers and regulators are demanding more visibility and transparency into food’s entire journey — from meat, dairy and produce plants all the way through to dinner tables, according to a recent Food Logistics article for which I was interviewed. Also quoted were my colleagues, Katrina Krites, marketing and business development manager, food retail, and Amy Childress, vice president of marketing and planning, Cargo Solutions, both with Emerson’s cold chain business.

The food supply chain is one of the segments hardest hit by the pandemic. Consumers quickly switched their buying behaviors from brick-and-mortar stores to online groceries. Spikes in demand and disruptions throughout the food supply chain led to acute shortages of certain product categories. One-third of consumers surveyed in NPD Group’s NET COVID-19 Pantry & Food Strategy Tracker still experience out-of-stock inventory months after the outbreak began.

It’s no wonder then that 81 percent of shoppers say transparency is important or extremely important to them, both online and in-store, according to a study by FMI, The Food Industry Association. Responses to the survey also revealed that consumers believe grocery retailers should provide detailed product information. Food safety clearly remains a top concern because of pandemic-related interruptions.

Delivering safe, high-quality food starts with understanding everything that contributes to food quality and safety throughout the cold chain. It’s staggering to realize that there can be potentially as many as 20 to 30 individual steps and multiple changes of ownership throughout this journey. Stakeholders at each point are now able to monitor, control and track a variety of conditions necessary for preserving food quality, including temperature, humidity, lighting and more.

Providing this greater visibility and management of inventory will require operators across the supply chain to integrate cold chain monitoring solutions and other technologies to assure food safety and on-time delivery. In addition, operators will need to implement the following:

  • Stringent operational processes
  • Enhanced supplier sourcing
  • Strong company relationships
  • An overarching standard to produce, deliver and sell food safely and ethically

See into the cold chain in real-time

Food chains have historically been opaque, long and complex. Increasingly, they are becoming more transparent, shorter and traceable. That’s occurring because consumers want to know more about where their food comes from and how it’s been handled. The impacts of the pandemic significantly increased the urgency behind this push.

According to Dan Crossley, executive director for Food Ethics Council, the question businesses should be asking is, “If our customers could see everything about how our food is produced, distributed, stored and sold, would they still want my product?”

One way to answer this question is by improving cold chain integrity. As Amy explained in the article, Emerson participates in the IBM Food Trust, where we leverage advanced cold chain technology “to provide temperature-related information on in-transit, refrigerated cargo to improve shelf-life estimates and food freshness, enabling more actionable data for IBM Food Trust network members.”

Smarter approaches to food safety

Expanding use of real-time and near real-time tracking devices and cloud-enabled software systems to monitor in-transit shipping conditions will also help operators to ensure food safety and quality. This is especially critical to keeping up with the global demand for year-round access to perishable products. Consumers want a variety of fresh produce, regardless of the location of its origin or the complex cold chain necessary to transport it by land, sea and/or air. The supply chain begins at the point of harvest and continues through processing, cold storage and distribution — all before the food ever begins the last-mile delivery to a store, restaurant or consumer. Overseas shipments can often last anywhere from two to four weeks.

Precise tracking of the condition of this food is possible with advanced hardware and software systems. For example, ProAct™ Connect+ enterprise management software from Emerson can help retailers by providing near real-time access to critical information to help retailers immediately monitor, triage and respond to issues across their multi-site networks. It also provides alarms/notifications using Emerson’s Site Supervisor and E2 facility management systems to provide continuous building and refrigeration monitoring at any location and across the enterprise.

As Katrina said in the article, “By providing enterprise management of refrigeration and other key facility systems, ProAct Connect+ can help retailers preserve food quality while meeting food safety compliance mandates.”

In-transit monitoring of food temperature, location, light, security and other sensor data for perishable cargo can be accomplished with Emerson’s GO real-time loggers and trackers and complimentary cloud-based online portal, Oversight 2. The solution’s automated reporting, real-time alerts and historical reports increase visibility into the status of in-transit cargo.

New normal: Verify food in-transit

The pandemic exposed areas of the global food supply chain that are susceptible to disruption by rapid changes in consumer behavior as well as food safety concerns. Food must be resupplied faster and kept fresh longer. Building these capabilities along with resiliency into the supply chain, will require even more focus amid our “new normal.” Those efforts will begin with the implementation of cold chain technologies that enable businesses to verify the condition of food at any and every step in its journey from producers to consumers.

 

Natural Refrigerants Remain Viable Among Emerging Options

AndrePatenaude_Blog_Image Andre Patenaude | Director, Food Retail Marketing & Growth Strategy, Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

I was recently asked by the editor of Accelerate America to offer my opinion on the viability of natural refrigerants, including CO2 (R-744), propane (R-290) and ammonia (R-714). Among the many emerging refrigerant alternatives, natural refrigerants check important boxes for owners and operators who are preparing for the rapidly changing commercial refrigeration landscape. View the full article here and read a summary of its key points below.

For more than a decade, natural refrigerants have factored prominently in the search for environmentally friendly refrigeration in both commercial and industrial sectors. We’ve seen the introduction of R-290 in micro-distributed, self-contained cases; increased global adoption of CO2 in centralized systems; and the emergence of ultra-low-charge ammonia, by itself as well as integrated with CO2 in cascade systems. As we kick off a new decade, we will likely continue to see these refrigerants progress along those established lanes.

Drivers for natural refrigerant adoption

Since their introduction, the drivers for natural refrigerant adoption have not changed. Most legacy refrigeration strategies rely on the use of high global warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, and companies with sustainability objectives or regulatory mandates were among the first to make the transition to natural refrigerants — which by many are considered immune from regulatory-mandated GWP caps.

In 2020, the phase-down of HFCs remains a focus of global environmental regulations. From the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and the European F-Gas regulations to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), many countries, states and regions share the goal of an HFC phase-down.

It’s often said that there’s no such thing as a perfect refrigerant — and that’s certainly the case with natural options. But natural refrigerants are among the very few alternatives capable of meeting some of the more aggressive GWP targets. R-290 has a GWP of 3; CO2 has a GWP of 1; and ammonia has a GWP of 0. So from environmental and regulatory perspectives, this puts them in a class by themselves.

Characteristics and caveats

With decades of field use and research to draw from, the performance characteristics of natural refrigerants are well known. But each option has operating caveats that equipment owners must carefully consider before investing in a long-term refrigeration strategy.

  • R-290 offers excellent energy efficiencies, but as an A3 (flammable) refrigerant, safety regulations limit its use to small charges globally from 150g to 500g. R-290 is a natural fit for small-capacity, self-contained cases that require a lower charge and are hermetically sealed at the factory.
  • CO2 is a high-pressure refrigerant with a low critical point (87.8 °F) that determines its modes of operation (subcritical, or below the critical point; transcritical, or above the critical point). It also has a high triple point where the refrigerant will turn to dry ice. Systems must be designed to manage these characteristics, and operators must have access to qualified technicians.
  • Ammonia has been used in industrial refrigeration for the past century, but its toxicity (B2L classification) presents challenges to equipment owners. Tightening safety regulations and the risk of exposure have led to system architectures designed to lower charges and move it out of occupied spaces.

Selecting a natural architecture

When evaluating natural refrigerant architectures, store formats and application requirements will often dictate the refrigerant choice. R-290 is well-suited for either smaller-format stores or as a spot merchandising option for larger stores. CO2 makes the most sense in larger stores seeking a centralized architecture alternative to HFCs. Ammonia is relatively rare in commercial applications but is finding its way into innovative architectures designed to mitigate its risks and benefit from its excellent performance characteristics.

R-290, from integrated cases to micro-distributed — For nearly a decade, manufacturers have worked within the 150g charge limit to create self-contained, integrated cases, in which the refrigeration system (compressor and condensing unit) is built into the display case. These evolved into a micro-distributed approach for small stores, where multiple units share a water/glycol loop to remove excess heat. This approach provides very low-GWP, total-store cooling while keeping charges low, typically operating with 90% less refrigerant than a centralized system.

CO2 transcritical booster — CO2 came into prominence more than a decade ago in large supermarkets where centralized architectures are preferred. CO2 transcritical booster system technology continues to improve today, offering an all-natural solution for both low- and medium-temperature cooling. Compared to centralized HFC systems, CO2 transcritical boosters represent a completely different approach to system operation and servicing. Operators must acquire technicians that are trained to service CO2 systems and implement strategies for power outages in order to mitigate “stand-still” pressure while the system is off.

CO2/ammonia hybrid subcritical (cascade) — CO2 cascade systems are designed to utilize CO2 in the low-temperature (LT) suction group where the refrigerant stays below its critical point and operates at lower pressures, much like a traditional HFC. Typically, an HFC (or HFO/HFC blend) is used in the medium-temperature (MT) circuit, where heat produced from the LT circuit is discharged (i.e., cascaded) into a heat exchanger and into the suction stage of the MT circuit. However, the recent introduction of ammonia as the MT refrigerant has transformed this configuration into an all-natural refrigerant option.

Safety first

With each of these natural refrigerant options, safety must be the primary consideration. Manufacturers have poured a great deal of effort into ensuring the safe operation and maintenance of natural systems with a variety of strategies, including pressure relief valves, specially designed components, leak detection devices, and proper guidance to owners and operators.

The global regulatory climate and trend toward environmentally friendly refrigeration will help natural refrigerants to proliferate along these well-established paths of least resistance. Still, there is much to consider for system operators, who must weigh the opportunity costs for selecting a natural refrigerant option.

 

Low-GWP Strategies for Achieving CARB Compliance

AndrePatenaude_Blog_Image Andre Patenaude | Director, Food Retail Marketing & Growth Strategy, Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

Emerson was recently invited to participate in a webinar series hosted by the North American Sustainable Refrigeration Council (NASRC) aimed at helping retailers prepare for California’s refrigerant regulations and incentives. In the webinar, Diego Marafon, refrigeration scroll product manager at Emerson, and I discussed emerging refrigeration strategies for supporting low-GWP (global warming potential) compliance and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) reductions while uncovering opportunities to lower operating costs.

Low-GWP Strategies for Achieving CARB Compliance

In the U.S., the California Air Resources Board (CARB) is leading the charge for regulations impacting commercial refrigeration. For large centralized refrigeration systems — which today make up the majority of retail refrigeration — CARB’s current proposal would require new systems with more than 50 pounds of refrigerant to use refrigerants below 150 GWP. As a result, CO2 is a primary refrigerant choice for operators seeking to stay with a large centralized system and meet CARB’s proposed regulation.

But as retailers evaluate new system architectures, they also have an expanding variety of decentralized and distributed options to consider. What’s more, CARB’s latest proposals provide new approaches for achieving HFC reductions that are giving retailers the option to remodel, rather than invest in all-new refrigeration systems for their fleet of stores. These proposals include:

  • Greenhouse gas emission potential (GHGp) reduction by 55% — Requires the total GHGp of all refrigeration systems in all stores to be 55% below the 2018 baseline by 2030, where GHGp equals the sum of the refrigerant charge times GWP — or GHGp = ∑(charge X GWP). This is a per-company target which gives retailers some flexibility in achieving compliance. As retailers retrofit their stores, they’ll receive credits for refrigerant charge and GWP reductions. But retailers must have the abilities to track, report each store’s GHGp baselines as well as document and verify any equipment changes.
  • Weighted average GWP (WAGWP) reduction < 1,400 — Requires the WAGWP of each retailer to be less than 1,400 by 2030. It’s calculated by finding the sum of the charge times GWP in every system in every store, divided by the total charge — or weighted average GWP = ∑(charge X GWP) / ∑ This approach allows retailers to aim for a fixed target — without the need for tracking a company baseline — while giving them the option to only retrofit the stores needed to meet the 1,400 GWP target. Retailers may need to apply this equation to multiple retrofit scenarios to successfully deploy this strategy. Simply put, they’ll need to do the math and figure out how to best reach this target.

Weighing your retrofit options

In the webinar, we discussed each of these approaches and ran the numbers to show how retailers could take a long-term view of their store fleet strategies and make modifications to achieve their goals — utilizing refrigerant changes, system retrofits or installing new refrigeration systems. Using a WAGWP calculator developed by Emerson, we demonstrated different strategies for achieving CARB compliance, providing cost projections for each option. If you’re interested in learning more about the WAGWP calculator, you can contact your salesperson, or visit the contact us page.

For this exercise, we looked at a hypothetical scenario of a California retailer with 25 stores, 66 total refrigeration systems and a WAGWP of 2,715. Then we evaluated three different retrofit options and calculated their impacts:

  • Refrigerant change from R-404A to R-448A — By changing out the refrigerant in all 25 stores, the retailer could achieve a WAGWP of 1,383 (nearly a 50% GHGp reduction). The total CapEx for the changes were $3M, with a cost per WAGWP reduction of $2.2k.
  • Convert half the stores to a new CO2 system — By installing new CO2 systems in 12 of the stores and leaving the other 13 untouched, the retailer could achieve a WAGWP of 1,277 (or a 54% GHGp reduction). The total CapEx for the changes were $27.3M, with a cost per WAGWP reduction of $19k.
  • Hybrid approach — By converting 20 systems to R-448A and installing 28 new scroll booster systems (with R-513A) — leaving 18 systems as is — the retailer could achieve a WAGWP of 1,520 (or 55% GHGp reduction). The total CapEx for the changes were $15M, with a cost per WAGWP reduction of $13k.

These scenarios demonstrated how to calculate system retrofit and remodel impacts while showing the multiple alternatives for implementing lower-GWP remodel strategies. It’s important to realize that in California, CARB has incentive programs to help retailers offset the cost of making these system changes.

But CARB is just one piece of a dynamic regulatory landscape — which includes energy, environmental and food safety regulations within varying regional, national and global jurisdictions — that continues to drive changes in refrigeration equipment and architectures. In response, Emerson is committed to developing a full spectrum of low-GWP refrigerant technologies, including CO2, R-290 and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), as well as lower-GWP HFC A1 refrigerants that are still in use. Most recently, we’ve expanded our offerings to support the industry’s need for more flexible, distributed architectures which deliver both high energy efficiencies and low-GWP ratings.

To learn more about using Emerson’s tools for calculating the impacts that system retrofits or remodels would have on your store fleet’s environmental footprint, view this NASRC webinar with the title of, “Emerson Technology Solutions.”

 

Preparing for the Future of Alternative Refrigerants

AndrePatenaude_Blog_Image Andre Patenaude | Director, Food Retail Marketing & Growth Strategy, Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

 

Regulations governing the use of refrigerants in commercial refrigeration remain in a state of flux. While the United States currently lacks a federal mandate for phasing down hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions, many states are already vowing to adopt their own HFC phase-down initiatives. In a new article in RSES Journal, I highlight several proven sustainable refrigeration strategies that operators should begin evaluating now as they prepare for a future that will be fueled by systems that utilize refrigerants with lower global warming potential (GWP). Read the article here.

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It’s clear that the future favors more environmentally friendly refrigeration systems. But the lower-GWP refrigerants and emerging architectures that comprise these systems are up for debate in the United States, where state-led efforts to curb climate change could result in a patchwork of environmental regulations.

The good news for owners and operators is that, even absent federal guidance, component manufacturers, OEMs, contractors and end users are leading the charge. For more than a decade, industry stakeholders have been developing and fine-tuning lower-GWP refrigerants and corresponding technologies to satisfy a range of applications, store formats and corporate sustainability goals.

The resulting proliferation of sustainable refrigeration systems is providing operators with more options than ever before. But as the one-size-fits-all solutions of the past give way to a broader array of strategies, operators need to become experts on alternative refrigerant technologies and architectures — all while trying to predict where future environmental regulations will land. While this may sound like a daunting task, it can be made easier by building a baseline understanding of current and emerging systems.

An expanding set of sustainable refrigeration strategies

Whether motivated by potential regulatory changes or corporate sustainability goals (or both), operators have no shortage of lower-GWP refrigerant systems from which to choose. Proven, viable alternatives to HFC-based systems already on the market include:

  • Lower-GWP A1s (HFO/HFC blends): By blending hyrdrofluoroolefins (HFOs) with HFCs, refrigerant manufacturers have created a new generation of lower-GWP A1 alternatives. These refrigerants do not satisfy the very low-GWP levels of many global HFC regulations, but they do allow for a gradual transition to lower-GWP refrigerants. Refrigeration architectures that use A1 refrigerants include macro-distributed (large) integrated cases, micro-booster (distributed) and small-charge distributed cases.
  • A2L HFO blends: New synthetic HFO blends offer widespread applicability within commercial refrigeration for operators seeking lower-GWP alternatives. U.S. safety codes and standards are still catching up to their use, but many operators anticipate A2L blends will emerge within the next several years. Both macro-distributed and micro-booster architectures that use A1 refrigerants can be used with some A2L blends, enabling operators to maximize their investment as they adopt lower-GWP alternatives.
  • Propane (R-290): This natural refrigerant is energy-efficient and has a very low GWP of 3. Because it’s classified as an A3 (flammable) refrigerant, U.S. building codes currently limit its use to small-charge applications — and that may require more compressors than other approaches. R-290 can be paired with micro-distributed, R-290 integrated cases, which allow for flexibility in store layouts and use 90% less refrigerant than centralized systems.
  • CO2 (R-744): A proven alternative in European and North American applications, CO2 is nonflammable and nontoxic. It also has a GWP of 1, meaning it satisfies current and potential future regulatory requirements. It can be used with CO2 transcritical booster systems — where CO2 provides both low- and medium-temperature cooling — and CO2 sub-critical (cascade) architectures that utilize an HFC or HFC/HFO blend on the medium-temperature side of the system. Both systems are particularly beneficial for large-format supermarkets where a centralized architecture is preferred. However, due to their higher pressures, these systems require access to a trained, skilled workforce for service and maintenance.

Staying ahead of the curve

Emerson is at the forefront of engineering a future that supports the entire spectrum of refrigeration strategies. We’ve been partnering with equipment manufacturers and end users alike to develop future-ready, low-GWP refrigerant technologies to support operators at every stage of their transition to a lower carbon footprint.

From our wide range of energy-efficient compressors, flow controls and smart electronics to fully integrated solutions, we’re providing our customers with the ability to implement sustainable refrigeration strategies that support their unique facility requirements, business objectives and regulatory requirements.

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