Skip to content

Posts tagged ‘E360’

Refrigerant Regulations: 2020 Update

RajanRajendran2 Rajan Rajendran | V.P., System Innovation Center and Sustainability

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

For several years, the regulatory landscape regarding the governance of refrigerants has been constantly shifting. Already in 2020, we’ve seen developments, both on the state and federal levels in the U.S., which will have significant impacts on the commercial refrigeration and air conditioning sectors for years to come. We recently published an E360 article that lays out these regulatory developments in detail; this blog is a condensed summary of its key points.

Global, national and state regulations have targeted the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants with high global warming potential (GWP) and replacing them with lower-GWP options. But while emerging refrigerants — such as natural alternatives and new synthetic blends of HFCs and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) — offer environmental improvements, they are not without their operational caveats. Making the transition to these new alternatives will impact refrigeration architectures and raise concerns about performance and safety.

This dynamic combination of factors creates a complex regulatory mix that industry stakeholders have been actively working to resolve. To better understand the full context, we’ve summarized the major regulatory developments in the U.S. and abroad.

Update on EPA SNAP Rules 20 and 21

In 2017, the U.S. District Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruled to vacate the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Significant New Alternative Policy (SNAP) Rule 20 — ruling that the EPA did not have authority to require those who had already moved out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) to phase down to lower-GWP HFCs under its Clean Air Act (CAA). Subsequently, the EPA published a “Notification of Guidance,” stating that it would not enforce any of the HFC restrictions set forth in SNAP Rules 20 and 21 when drafting future regulations.

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) filed a lawsuit claiming that the 2018 Guidance was overly broad because it did not distinguish between ODS and HFC replacements, and that the EPA had not followed proper public notice-and-comment procedures to seek stakeholder input.

On April 7, 2020, the Court of Appeals granted the NRDC’s petition, stating that the EPA guidance was procedurally inappropriate. The court agreed that the initial 2017 decision required only a partial vacatur — not entirely eliminating the requirements SNAP Rules 20 and 21.

It’s important to remember that the industry had already made great strides toward meeting the mandates of SNAP Rule 20 after its passing in 2015, but these ongoing legal entanglements have left the U.S. without a clear path forward in terms of a unified refrigerant strategy. While the majority of the industry still supports the move toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future, court rulings around SNAP Rules 20 and 21 have created many questions about what the path forward will look like.

HFCs excluded from refrigerant management requirements

In response to the 2017 Court of Appeals ruling, the EPA also has rolled back other HFC-related regulations. Specifically, it excludes HFCs from the leak repair and maintenance requirements for stationary refrigeration equipment, otherwise known as Section 608 of the CAA. Other beneficial provisions of Section 608 — including the certified technician program and the refrigerant recovery and reclamation rules — are still in effect.

California continues to set the pace

The passing of California Senate Bill 1383 (the Super Pollutant Reduction Act) in 2016 called for Californians to reduce F-gas emissions (including HFCs) by 40 percent by 2030. Since then, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) had been using EPA SNAP Rules 20 and 21 as the bases of its HFC phase-down initiatives. The subsequent passing of California Senate Bill 1013 (the California Cooling Act) in 2018 mandated the full adoption of SNAP Rules 20 and 21 as they read on Jan. 3, 2017; the law is currently in effect.

To meet HFC reductions of 40 percent by 2030, CARB continues to hold public workshops and invited industry stakeholders to comment on the details of its second phase of proposed rulemaking, which currently states:

 

  • Refrigerants with a GWP greater than or equal to 150 will not be allowed in new stationary refrigeration systems charged with more than 50 pounds, effective Jan. 1, 2022.
  • Existing food retail facilities with refrigeration systems charged with more than 50 pounds must collectively meet a 1,400 GWP average or 55 percent greenhouse gas emission potential (GHGp) reduction over 2018 levels by 2030.
  • Refrigerants with a GWP greater than or equal to 750 will not be allowed in new stationary air conditioning equipment, effective Jan. 1, 2023.
  • Refrigerants with a GWP greater than or equal to 750 will not be allowed in chillers (including process chillers) greater than -15 °F and ice rinks, effective Jan. 1, 2024.
  • Refrigerants with a GWP greater than or equal to 2,200 will not be allowed in new chillers ranging from
    -15 °F through -58 °F, effective Jan. 1, 2024.

 

CARB is planning to finalize these rulemaking proposals this summer and is still seeking industry input.

More states join U.S. Climate Alliance

In 2017, a coalition of 16 states and Puerto Rico emerged to form the U.S. Climate Alliance, with a shared commitment of reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and HFCs. Since then, the Alliance has grown to 25 members — comprising more than 55 percent of the U.S. population and an $11.7 trillion economy. Several states have announced plans to follow California’s lead on HFC phase-downs.

Refrigerant safety standards and codes under review

Meeting the targeted emissions reductions in California likely will require the use of low-GWP refrigerants. But many of these low-GWP, HFO refrigerants are classified as A2L, or mildly flammable. The natural A3 refrigerant R-290 (propane) also is becoming more widely used in low-charge, self-contained commercial refrigeration applications. Currently, national and global governing agencies are evaluating the standards that establish allowable charge limits and the safe use of these A2L and A3 refrigerants.

Per a 2019 update from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to IEC60335-2-89, A2L and A3 charge limits have been increased for commercial refrigeration systems:

  • A2Ls — from 150g to 1.2kg
  • A3s — 500g for factory-sealed systems, and will remain at 150g for split systems

Similar efforts to raise A2L and A3 charge limits also are taking place in the U.S. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) are working to establish new charge limits and mitigations for the use of A2L and A3 refrigerants with support from industry and various stakeholders.

Once adopted, these standards will serve as the bases for codes that govern building, fire and other local authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ). It’s important to remember that building codes vary from state to state; thus, the adoption of flammable refrigerants ultimately may take place on local levels and may take years to accomplish.

Kigali Amendment not ratified in U.S.

In 2016, 197 member countries of the Montreal Protocol met in Kigali, Rwanda, and agreed on a global HFC phase-down proposal. The Kigali Amendment required ratification from at least 20 countries to take effect. To date, 92 countries (including many countries in the E.U., but not including the U.S.) have ratified it; it has been in effect for participating countries since Jan. 1, 2019.

According to industry estimates, ratifying the Kigali Amendment could create up to 33,000 jobs in the manufacturing sector by 2027 and have a positive impact on the U.S. economy. For these reasons, industry advocates are in favor of ratification and have demonstrated this through letters of support to both the Senate and the White House.

New HFC bills introduced in the U.S.

The U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives have each penned new bills that would put the EPA in alignment with the Kigali Amendment and restore the EPA’s authority to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs over a 15-year period.

  • Senate: American Innovation and Manufacturing Act of 2019 (S2754)
  • House: American Innovation Leadership Act of 2020 (HR5544)

While the future and timing of these new bills are uncertain, they offer the potential to re-establish a federal standard for HFC management, including guidelines for servicing, recovery, recycling and reclamation.

Industry appeals for consistency

Industry advocates, including the Air-conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) and the NRDC, have appealed for states to be consistent in their approach to adopting CARB’s rules. Establishing a unified framework for future refrigerant regulations would provide the certainty needed to help the industry and regulatory bodies move forward with a consistent approach. At Emerson, we’re actively involved in helping the HVACR industry evaluate and steer these proposals — in industry committees, stakeholder meetings and public comments.

 

How Emerson Is Taking on Today’s Most Pressing Refrigeration Challenges with Copeland Scroll ™

Phil Moeller | Vice President – Product Management, Refrigeration
Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

Since its introduction nearly 30 years ago, the Copeland Scroll has revolutionized the standards for refrigeration performance and reliability. An article from the E360 Product Spotlight provides an overview of Emerson’s recent innovations for the Copeland Scroll. Click here to read the article in its entirety.

How Emerson Is Taking on Today’s Most Pressing Refrigeration Challenges with Copeland Scroll ™

The commercial refrigeration industry has changed drastically in recent years due to new regulations and consumer trends. Operators demand an ever-widening spectrum of applications, from large centralized systems to small walk-in freezers and coolers. Energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have become business priorities. And digital technologies promise connected, predictable visibility to refrigeration systems.

That’s why Emerson’s research and development (R&D) teams for Copeland Scroll have come up with innovative technologies that optimize performance and reliability, helping you take on these emerging challenges.

Innovations that bring more power, flexibility and advanced capabilities to the Copeland Scroll lineup

Wider application and temperature ranges: We’ve expanded the ranges of commercial applications for Copeland Scroll compressors, now spanning fractional ¾ horsepower ZF*KA compressors designed for low temperatures up to the 17 horsepower K5 compressor for low- and medium-temperature applications. You’ll find a variety of solutions within this horsepower range for your low-, medium- and extended medium-temperature applications.

Inherently robust product designs: Minimalistic, fully hermetic Copeland Scroll designs use up to 70 percent fewer moving parts than semi-hermetic, reciprocating compressors. That means they have no complex suction and discharge valves; can start under any system load; eliminate many vibration issues; improve liquid and debris handling; and, with their compact and lighter-weight designs, make servicing easier.

Energy compliance: Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) rely on Copeland Scroll technology to help meet the Department of Energy’s annual walk-in efficiency factor (AWEF) ratings for walk-in coolers and freezers. Copeland Scroll’s inherent efficiency and reliability are the foundation of AWEF-compliant condensing units in leading OEM equipment design strategies.

Alternative, lower-GWP refrigerants: The Copeland Scroll lineup includes many compressors rated for use with lower-GWP synthetic and natural refrigerant alternatives. We continue to evaluate and test emerging refrigerants to help operators achieve their performance and sustainability goals.

Performance-enhancing technologies: Emerson R&D teams for Copeland Scroll lead the industry in rolling out performance-enhancing innovations, from digital modulation capabilities to liquid- and vapor-injection options and lower condensing operation. These technologies improve system reliability and capacity while meeting today’s demanding regulatory requirements.

Smart diagnostics and protection: Today, many Copeland Scroll compressors are equipped with on-board CoreSense™ Diagnostics. CoreSense provides advanced motor performance monitoring and protection, diagnostics, power consumption measurements and communication capabilities. Other compressors can be retrofitted with our panel-mounted, remote diagnostic systems. This active protection technology is driven by advanced algorithms and fault detection logging and histories, helping enable technicians to quickly diagnose and repair systems.

Product development partnerships: As an Emerson customer of Copeland Scroll, you have access to Emerson’s extensive capabilities to support your own product development efforts, collaborating with us on application engineering; design, testing and certification services; proof of concept; and application development.

Closer ties to the industry’s largest support network: Copeland Scroll compressors are backed by a network of more than 1,000 Copeland-authorized locations and over 600 certified Copeland technical specialists — a base of operations that can quickly deliver the products and technical assistance you need. Our new, fully featured Copeland™ Mobile app connects to the Emerson Online Product Information database for on-the-go access to 30 years of compressor products and specifications. It can help you quickly troubleshoot and diagnose issues and connect to our wholesaler network to check local availability of replacement products.

 

With a legacy of innovation and an eye toward the future, you can be sure that Emerson will continue to evolve to meet today’s rapidly changing commercial refrigeration requirements. To learn more about our innovations and emerging technologies, read the full E360 article.

 

E360 Breakfast at AHR: HVACR Refrigerants & Regulations Discussion

RajanRajendran2 Rajan Rajendran | V.P., System Innovation Center and Sustainability

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

Before the doors open at the AHR Expo on February 4, join us at 8 a.m. for an interactive E360 Breakfast discussion on HVACR refrigerants and regulations. You’ll hear about several industry trends to keep your eyes on over the next few years.

E360 Breakfast at AHR: HVACR Refrigerants & Regulations Discussion

Refrigerant regulations are in constant flux, making it extremely difficult to stay current on the latest changes and information. Emerson’s regulation experts, Rajan Rajendran and Jennifer Butsch will highlight some of the latest regulatory updates and refrigerant options to help get you up to speed.

In addition, Emerson’s Ken Monnier will explore several industry trends that could potentially impact you over the next decade.

During this interactive discussion, you’ll have opportunities to ask some of your most pressing questions and share thoughts on measures that attendees might leverage to address today’s challenges.

E360 Breakfast: HVACR Refrigerants & Regulations Discussion

When                                                   Where

Tuesday, February 4                         Orange County Convention Center

8 – 9:30 a.m.                                     Room: W205 (West Concourse), Level II

9800 International Drive

Orlando, FL  32819

Afterward, you’ll be ready to hit the AHR Expo floor. We hope your first stop is the Emerson booth (#2101), where you can take a close look at some of our exciting technologies:

 

  • Copeland™ AWEF compliant condensing units for walk-In coolers and freezers — take energy efficiency regulations out of the equation with condensing units certified to meet AWEF requirements.
  • Copeland Scroll™ Digital Outdoor Refrigeration Unit, X-Line Series learn how precise temperature control and significant energy savings are made possible with latest innovation in variable capacity modulation technology.
  • Copeland™ Modular Indoor Solution — see how our AHR Innovation Award finalist provides an all-in-one micro-distributed solution for food retailers, restaurants and convenience stores with display cases and walk-in boxes.
  • Supervisory Controls — learn why retailers large and small rely on this total-facility platform to monitor, optimize and control their refrigeration systems, HVAC, lighting and more.
  • Connect+ Enterprise Management Software — get an inside look at our newest IoT-enabled software suite designed provide advanced operational efficiencies across a multi-site retail network.

Register now to reserve your seat at this informative, idea-filled E360 Breakfast — a great way to start your day at AHR!

 

Automating the Commercial Kitchen: Making the Business Case for Long-Term Value

Paul_Hepperla Paul Hepperla | Vice President, Solutions Strategy – Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

In 2019, Emerson hosted an in-depth E360 panel discussion on automating the commercial kitchen. The panelists, a cross-section of industry experts, proposed valuable insights on the potential that automation and connectivity offer commercial restaurants. In the second article of this three-part series, I summarize their thoughts on building the business case for internet of things technologies and tackling common challenges. You can read the full article here.

Automating the Commercial Kitchen: Making the Business Case for Long-Term Value

Internet of things (IoT) technologies are steadily making inroads in the commercial kitchen landscape. And that’s posing a set of challenging questions for quick-service restaurants (QSR) eager to benefit from the cost savings and improved quality control that a connected kitchen can deliver.

For this reason alone, building a sound business case for IoT technologies is critical. The process is an excellent opportunity to tackle difficult questions at the front end to avoid costly pitfalls during — and after — implementation.

Ensuring data is actionable

As we discussed in our first article in this series, IoT technologies offer tremendous potential to reduce labor costs and improve food safety. But before QSRs invest in new technologies, they must first ask how serious their operators are about actually using data.

This is one of the most important questions to ask, because applicability must always be the defining feature of every IoT investment. As more equipment comes online and the number of data points expands, store managers will have access to a staggering amount of data that they don’t have the time or skillset to interpret. To be useful, the data must be paired with simple alerts or other actionable information that operators can quickly and easily act upon.

Determining data ownership

As they build their business cases, QSRs must also determine who will own the data. Most often, this will be the foodservice corporation, the franchisee or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Issues can arise when the owner of the data doesn’t see much advantage in sharing with others.

However, making the data accessible to all three parties may prove beneficial to each. Sharing information between the corporation and the franchisee could identify new avenues for cost savings. OEMs could use the information to make ongoing improvements to their equipment. And opening up access to source and derived data could lead to a reduction in service calls and lower service warranty costs.

Simplifying the user experience

The user interface is another consideration that QSRs need to factor in early on. Most QSRs source their equipment from multiple manufacturers, which makes uniformity a challenge. Any efficiencies captured through connected equipment could potentially be undone if operators are forced to log into and navigate multiple interfaces in order to access data.

Some QSRs, such as Wendy’s, are creating custom interfaces which share a common look and feel. This allows employees to share the same user experience, no matter which equipment interface they are accessing. Conversely, QSRs can opt to invest in a common interface that consolidates data for all equipment types and brands in one place, under one login.

Room for improvement

One area that still needs refinement is servicing. IoT technologies should be providing technicians with a trove of information. Yet whether it’s because the data is too siloed or because IoT is relatively underdeveloped in commercial kitchens, the benefits to servicing are falling short. Still, as the technology matures, productivity gains for servicing and maintenance will come to light as well.

Emerson’s product development expertise is moving the industry closer to a true plug-and-play approach by simplifying connectivity and developing application program interface (API) strategies. Our goal is to provide intuitive, streamlined access and information that operators can act upon so they can achieve their business objectives, protect their brands, and drive greater cost savings.

In the next and final article in this series, we’ll delve into the future of automation in the commercial kitchen and dig into the emerging challenges of data security and connectivity protocols.

Automating the Commercial Kitchen: Enhancing Productivity and Food Safety

Paul_Hepperla Paul Hepperla | Vice President, Solutions Strategy – Cold Chain

Emerson Commercial & Residential Solutions

In 2019, Emerson hosted an in-depth E360 panel discussion on automating the commercial kitchen. The panelists, a cross-section of industry experts, proposed valuable insights on the potential that automation and connectivity offer commercial restaurants. In the first article of this three-part series, I summarize their thoughts on how automation is shaping labor efficiency and food safety. You can read the full article here. 

Automating the Commercial Kitchen: Enhancing Productivity and Food Safety

Automating the commercial kitchen is not a new concept. But as the adoption of internet of things (IoT) technologies accelerates, commercial restaurants are looking at a future where automation will more effectively deliver on their top priorities: reduced labor costs and improved food safety. The key for quick-service restaurants (QSR) will be investing in solutions that actually address what matters most to their operations.

 

Driving greater labor efficiencies

Thus far, the foodservice industry has had great success with using automation to enhance human labor. In the near future, the goal of automation will be to begin to replace human labor. Connected equipment and related technologies hold the potential to not just eliminate steps, but to automate manual processes. As a result, QSRs will be able to shift from saving minutes here and there to reducing their actual headcount.

That’s not to say that the entire labor force will be replaced by touch screens and robots anytime soon. Rather, automating repetitive processes and universally undesirable tasks will enable employees to focus on higher-value activities. Enterprising QSRs could even use automation to improve employee satisfaction and retention by integrating incentives into everyday tasks.

Improving food safety

Automation will increasingly play an omnipresent role in food safety. This is welcome news for QSRs complying with the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). For example, by automating food temperature documentation, QSRs will have greater confidence that the work is done correctly and consistently.

To fully benefit from automation, QSRs will need to integrate both hot side and cold storage areas. Doing so will provide operators with a real-time, end-to-end view of food safety, from storage to preparation to delivery to customers. Over time, the aggregated data can be used to further improve efficiencies and identify energy management cost savings.

Staying focused on long-term value

As the evolution of the commercial kitchen comes into view, it’s easy to get swept up in the possibilities and promise of emerging IoT technologies. But QSR operators need to look beyond the novelty and focus on real-world applicability.

A new high-tech solution may promise to improve operations through automation. But will it promote or detract from the customer experience? Will it deliver long-term, sustainable labor savings or just reallocate existing staff to different assignments? Above all, will it actually mitigate the risk of fines, bad press and reputational harm resulting from a food safety issue?

Likewise, operators need to determine what they will do with this abundance of data. The information is useless if it’s not attached to an actionable plan. And that means humans cannot be completely removed from the equation — yet.

At Emerson, we’re asking these questions on the front end to derive valuable business outcomes from all automation and connectivity initiatives. Our goal is to help operators capture the real-time data they need to ensure that food is safely stored, prepared and cooked. Our Cooper-Atkins solutions support critical food safety initiatives by automating temperature monitoring throughout the cooking and preparation processes. And as more of these processes are automated, QSRs benefit from enhanced productivity on the human side.

In our next article, we’ll delve into the business case of IoT technologies and the challenges involved with data ownership, user interfaces and servicing.

%d bloggers like this: