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Posts tagged ‘Refrigeration’

Copeland™ Horizontal Variable Speed Scroll Compressor Recognized as AHR Award Finalist

Joe Summers | Senior Product Manager – Scrolls & Drives
Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

The Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor (1 to 4 HP) has been recognized as a finalist in the annual AHR Expo (International Air-Conditioning, Heating, Refrigerating Exposition) Innovation Awards. This competition honors the most inventive heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) products, systems and technologies. For original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end-users of self-contained, reach-in coolers and freezers, display cases and walk-in coolers, the Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor delivers an ideal combination of sustainability, reliability and design flexibility.

Balancing the sustainability equation

Today, smaller-format food retail market trends and environmental and energy regulations are driving the transition toward more distributed refrigeration architectures. As more operators deploy flexible self-contained display cases, they also seek lower-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant options and energy-efficient equipment that supports their corporate sustainability objectives.

Meeting these evolving requirements can present significant design challenges for OEMs of self-contained systems. One of the leading strategies for achieving high energy efficiencies or ENERGY STAR® certification relies on the use of large-capacity condenser coils, which can reduce available merchandising space in a display case. As a result, OEMs often place compressors on the top of a case — thereby increasing its overall size, limiting its aesthetic appeal, and creating higher noise levels.

The low-profile Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor solves these known design challenges while delivering significant sustainability, energy efficiency and performance improvements. Available in capacity ranges from 1 to 4 HP, this innovative variable-speed compression solution is ideal for use in a wide variety of self-contained commercial refrigeration applications.

To help end-users comply with refrigerant regulations and/or meet sustainability objectives, the Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor is approved for use with the next generation of lower-GWP refrigerants, including A1 (R-448/49A) and A3 (R-290) which have already been approved, as well as A2Ls in the near future. The recent R-290 charge limit increases approved by Underwriters Laboratories’ (UL) UL 60335-2-89 standard should also set the stage for the use of larger-capacity, R-290 based, self-contained display cases.

In addition, the Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor combines brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors with our advanced Copeland variable frequency drives (VFDs), EVM series to help OEMs meet the energy efficiency standards set by the Department of Energy (DOE) — even achieving its ENERGY STAR certification.

Benefiting end-users and OEMs

The Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor enables larger capacities in a smaller footprint while delivering proven scroll benefits and the many advantages of variable capacity modulation, including:

  • Increased energy efficiency
  • Improved compressor reliability
  • Precise load matching for higher refrigeration performance
  • Lower noise levels

BPM motors and advanced Copeland VFDs combine to achieve the following performance enhancements:

  • 15% energy reduction compared to an equivalent fixed-speed scroll, per Emerson lab simulations
  • Increased equipment reliability through proactive motor failure prevention
  • Decreased susceptibility to power issues
  • Reduced start/stop events
  • Seamless integration with supervisory control platforms, such as Emerson’s Lumity™ E3 supervisory control

This recent recognition by the AHR Innovation Awards is a validation of our commitment to helping OEMs and end-users address modern refrigeration challenges. The Copeland variable speed horizontal scroll compressor helps OEMs to meet low-profile equipment design challenges while allowing end users to adopt sustainable refrigeration strategies.

As refrigerant regulations evolve, refrigeration architectures will continue to leverage self-contained, distributed systems and utilize lower-GWP refrigerant alternatives. By integrating a Copeland horizontal variable speed scroll compressor in their self-contained, reach-in coolers and freezers, display cases and walk-ins, OEMs can significantly improve system energy efficiency and performance

Refrigeration Basics: Troubleshooting Fundamentals

         Don Gillis | Lead Technical Trainer

          Emerson’s Educational Services

Welcome to the second installment in our new series of blogs intended to help not just beginning service technicians, but anyone who wants to learn more about the basics of refrigeration. I will continue to share insights, best practices and other information from our Emerson training program as well as from our commercial and residential solutions experts. In addition, we’ve created companion videos about each topic that you can cross-reference while accessing other related information at Education.Emerson.com.

In this series, I’ll touch on topics ranging from how condensers, compressors and evaporators work, to superheating and subcooling, to the refrigeration cycle, vapor injection and basic refrigeration system troubleshooting.

In this blog, I explain several key topics related to troubleshooting common compressor issues:

  • The role of the condenser
  • Understanding superheat
  • Where to check superheat
  • Understanding subcooling
  • What discharge line temperature really tells us
  • Why compressor overheating is a problem
  • How low you can pump a compressor
  • The difference between floodback and a flooded start

How condensing removes heat from an environment

When we think of the role of a condenser, we’re essentially referring to the place where heat is rejected in a cooling system. What type of heat is rejected? Well, the motor generates heat, and so does the act of compression. The refrigeration system must also reject superheat as well as the load heat from the evaporator.

As part of the refrigeration cycle, the system also condenses the refrigerant. This process involves taking a vapor, removing the heat outside, and condensing it into a liquid by removing the heat and returning it to its condensing temperature.

You’ll notice on most condensers that the vapor enters at the top and leaves at the bottom, where the liquid is much heavier than the weight of the vapor.

What is superheat?    

Superheat is any heat added to a vapor above its boiling point. For example, water boils at 212 oF at atmospheric pressure. The second that last droplet of water evaporates, the temperature rises to 213 oF. That increase in temperature is 1 degree of superheat.

Superheat also is the temperature of the vapor leaving that evaporator on the suction side. A compressor needs superheat in order to function.

Where to check superheat

First, determine what superheat temperature is needed. A system designer more than likely will want to know the superheat leaving the evaporator. If you’re talking to a specialist at Emerson, they’re likely looking for the total superheat or the heat that’s entering the compressor.

Remember that superheat is a vapor, so you can check it on the low side — the evaporator side — of the system. Take a reading of the temperature from the suction line and subtract it from the saturated suction temperature inside the evaporator.

What is subcooling?

Subcooling refers to the heat that is removed from a liquid below its boiling point. For example, if we again use water with a boiling point of 212 oF at atmospheric pressure, its subcooled liquid temperature would be 211 oF.

Subcooling is determined by subtracting the condenser saturating temperature from the liquid line temperature — either leaving the condenser or entering the metering device.

What discharge line temperature really tells us

Discharge line temperature (DLT) is the temperature of superheated vapor leaving the compressor; it can tell us a lot about the conditions inside the compressor.

These temperatures are dependent on model, refrigerant type and application. Refer to Copeland for exact specifications

If the superheat temperature is also high, continue moving down the line to check the temperature leaving the evaporator. The high readings could be caused by a malfunctioning metering device, but more often than not, the DLT temperature is too high because of a high compression ratio.

Why compressor overheating is a problem

When compressor temperatures are higher than normal, it’s typically due to a high compression ratio. A high compression ratio indicates either a high head pressure and a very low suction pressure, or a combination of both.

So what are the typical causes of a high compression ratio? Often, it’s due to thinning of the oil inside the system, leading to more friction on moving parts inside the compressor. Friction adds heat, which can increase wear and tear on the parts and lead to premature compressor failure.

Compressors are designed with a thermal operating disc to provide internal protection. However, it’s crucial to monitor the compressor’s internal temperature; always check the discharge line temperature for an indication.

How low should you pump a compressor?

The answer depends on the model number of the compressor, the application and the refrigerant you’re using. Enter these details into the Copeland™ Online Product Information (OPI) website, where you can find the design specifications for the pump down number.

One more important note to remember with respect to pumping: Never pump a compressor down to zero or into a vacuum.

Know the difference between floodback and a flooded start

Floodback occurs when refrigerant leaves the evaporator and enters the running compressor as a liquid instead of a vapor — which can ultimately lead to system failure. Conditions contributing to floodback include air flow, ice buildup, overcharging refrigerant or misadjusted expansion valves.

Symptoms of floodback include overheating from a loss of lubrication and decreased system efficiency. Prevent floodback by modifying defrost cycles, checking refrigerant charging levels, adjusting or replacing expansion valves, and making sure that evaporator coils are cleaned and not damaged.

A flooded start is different than floodback because it can occur when the compressor is not running — and has not been operated for some time. The difference in the temperature (DT) from the crankcase oil, and the vapor refrigerant in the evaporator causes it to migrate towards the compressor oil. There, it condenses into a liquid and is absorbed by the oil. Then, when the compressor is started, the refrigerant boils into a vapor, diluting the oil in the crankcase and reducing the lubrication of bearings, rods and other critical surfaces.

Symptoms include erratic wear or seizure damage to the rods or bearings and the crankshaft. Prevent a flooded start by installing a continuous pump down cycle on the compressor to remove from the low-pressure side. Pump downs would typically not be used in residential applications.  A crankcase heater can be installed or the compressor can be located where ambient temperatures are controlled.

 

Refrigeration Basics: Understanding Refrigerants With Glide

         Don Gillis | Lead Technical Trainer

          Emerson’s Educational Services

Welcome to our new series of blogs intended to help not just beginning service technicians, but anyone who wants to learn more about the basics of refrigeration. I plan to share insights, best practices and other information from our Emerson training program as well as from our commercial and residential solutions experts. In addition, we’ve created companion videos about each topic that you can cross-reference while accessing other related information at Education.Emerson.com.

In this series, I’ll touch on topics ranging from how condensers, compressors and evaporators work, to superheating and subcooling, to the refrigeration cycle, vapor injection and basic refrigeration system troubleshooting. In this blog, I explain the key environmental considerations of refrigerants, how to account for refrigerant glide, and how the dew point impacts climate control equipment performance.

What’s the difference between ODP and GWP?

A refrigerant’s environmental characteristics are determined largely by two factors: 1) its impact on the Earth’s ozone layer, or ozone depletion potential (ODP); and 2) its potential to produce greenhouse gas emissions, or global warming potential (GWP). Chlorine-containing ODP refrigerants have been banned for use, while high-GWP hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants are currently the target of global regulations (i.e., the HFC phasedown). Today, refrigerant manufacturers are introducing a variety of lower-GWP refrigerant alternatives to help commercial and residential customers achieve a full spectrum of sustainability goals.

In the United States, federal and state regulations are accelerating the phasedown of the use of high-GWP refrigerants. Meanwhile, corporate sustainability objectives also are driving more companies to re-evaluate their choices of refrigerants and refrigeration systems.

What is refrigerant glide?

Refrigerants are often comprised of a blend of two or more constituents. These individual components’ different saturation temperatures can impact the refrigerant’s performance characteristics. Working with refrigerants with glide requires understanding the boiling point of each of its constituents:

  • Bubble point, or lowest condensing temperature of a constituent
  • Mean condensing temperature
  • Dew point, or the highest condensing temperature of a constituent

The difference between the boiling points of the first and last constituents is referred to as glide. Essentially, the least volatile component condenses first, and each additional component of a refrigerant blend will start and end at different boiling points. The total temperature glide of a refrigerant blend is defined as the temperature difference between the saturated vapor temperature and the saturated liquid temperature at a constant pressure. An alternate definition is the temperature difference between the starting and ending temperatures of a refrigerant phase change within a system at a constant pressure.

Become a “Cooling Champion” for World Refrigeration Day 2021

RajanRajendran2 Rajan Rajendran | V.P., System Innovation Center and Sustainability

Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

Emerson is pleased to announce our sponsorship of the third annual World Refrigeration Day (WRD), which is celebrated globally today, June 26. The theme of this year’s WRD event, Cooling Champions: Cool Careers for a Better World, coincides with Emerson’s commitment to raise awareness of the expanding career opportunities throughout the heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) industry. For our part, we will commemorate WRD by promoting the importance of education and recruitment of HVACR technicians via an E360 Webinar, as well as on our social channels and website.

As the world’s only international event designed to increase visibility and raise awareness of the significant roles that refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump (RACP) technologies play in modern life and society, WRD has become a special day here at Emerson. This year’s focus on career opportunities aligns with a key initiative that we have been championing for more than a decade: the growing shortage of skilled, qualified and certified HVACR technicians.

According to recent industry statistics, 80,000 HVACR technician jobs are currently unfilled — representing 39% of the total industry workforce of 260,000 professionals. At the same time, the industry is losing an estimated 20,000 technician jobs per year due to the retirement of an aging workforce or basic career attrition rates. If we continue along this pace, our industry could potentially face a deficit of 100,000 technicians within the next five years.

Solving this problem is an industry-wide obligation that will require the participation of all stakeholders — from contracting companies, manufacturers, end users, wholesalers and trade associations to educators, adjacent industries and government agencies. Addressing this challenge and proposing potential solutions will be the collective focus of our WRD-themed E360 Webinar on Wednesday, July 7 at 9 a.m. EDT (6 a.m. PDT) titled, Exploring Cool Careers and Emerging Opportunities in HVACR. This webinar will assemble a global panel of experts to discuss recruitment strategies and highlight the many positive aspects of an HVACR technician career, including:

  • Leveraging advanced technologies and modern tools
  • Equipping technicians with skills that enable a high earning potential
  • Co-op and apprenticeship opportunities to learn the trade while also earning a paycheck
  • Learning skills that support our infrastructure and make the world a better place
  • Inspiring passion in HVACR professions

Today, Emerson’s social media channels will feature a series of videos and related content from many of our global regions. Be sure to follow us on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and YouTube to see information highlighting:

  • The importance of recruiting the next generation of HVACR technicians
  • Key individuals and success stories in the field
  • The value of this evergreen, in-demand career path

For Emerson, becoming a “cooling champion” for World Refrigeration Day is all part of our commitment to helping the industry address the growing HVACR technician shortage and ensure a more sustainable future for our planet. To learn more about these efforts, please register for our upcoming E360 Webinar and read our latest E360 Article.

For more information on World Refrigeration Day, visit www.worldrefrigerationday.org.

 

Innovative Solutions to Sustain Our Communities

John Rhodes |Group President, Cold Chain
Emerson’s Commercial & Residential Solutions Business

Putting our technologies and knowledge to work in pursuit of a better planet is in our DNA at Emerson. It’s ingrained throughout our culture and reinforced in our Purpose: We drive innovation that makes the world healthier, safer, smarter and more sustainable.

Our newest innovation – a unique refrigeration technology developed at our Helix Innovation Center in Dayton, Ohio – will help the local community, where the concept first came to life.  Gem City Market, a collaborative grocery store with the mission to equip, engage and empower our neighborhoods will be the recipient of our donation which was made in partnership with Hussmann and Chemours who donated additional refrigeration equipment in service of this initiative. We are proud to help through one of our core areas of expertise: providing sustainable refrigeration technology that can help protect food quality and safety.

The location of Gem City Market qualifies as a “food desert,” according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. In order to meet the standards of a food desert, more than 40% of the population must have an income of less than or equal to 200% of the federal poverty threshold and live more than a mile from a supermarket or large grocery store.

Food deserts are a persistent problem in many communities, and supply chain barriers to accessing healthy, affordable food contribute to this global issue. Many local and smaller retail stores within distance of underserved communities struggle to get their shelves stocked with local produce and fresh food due to the lack of perceived customer demand, limited technology and the lack of infrastructure to refrigerate these goods properly.

There are alternatives to costly full-scale refrigeration systems typically seen in supermarkets. Our new Copeland™ scroll booster refrigeration technology will help combat the issue of limited infrastructure to properly store perishables at Gem City Market. The first commercialization of technology developed at our Helix Innovation Center in Dayton, the Copeland scroll booster is a new-to-the-world flexible refrigeration architecture. This booster technology enables Gem City to use a lower global warming potential refrigerant to store food at its optimal temperature, helping them meet their sustainability goals and achieve stringent regulatory compliance.

Our scroll booster technology is a new architecture option for those who are in search of sustainable solutions – and is a testament to the power of innovation and collaboration. When committed people come together, we can create options for families to shop for nutritious food in their own communities. And when problem solvers come together in the name of leaving the world a better place, they are truly unstoppable.

 

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